popular post of all time

new posts

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

BARN AND ITS USES


1. Barns
These are used for storing yam tubers. The method involves the tying of yam tubers with strong twine to small vertical poles, which are supported by strong horizontal poles, also tied to solid stakes. Shade is needed over the barn to prevent the tubers from excessive drying

DIAGRAM
Figure 3.7.1: Yam Tubers in a Barn.

Advantages of the barn method
1. It is cheap to construct'as forest woods and ropes can readily obtained (especially in the high forest).
2. The yam tubers do not get rotten quickly because they are raised from the ground
3. It is easy to detect any tuber that is going bad.
4. It can be





used to safeguard yam tubers from being eaten by the mamalian pests (e.g. rodents) and insect pests (e.g. yam beetle)
Disadvantages
1. The method is laborious
2. Yam tubers are affected by weather conditions. For example tubers become dehydrated after
some time.

2. Boxes and Underground Pits or Trenches





These are used for storing cassava tubers. Yam tubers can also be ill lor a short time in underground pits immediately after harvest. Underground pit is most common for storing cassava tubers. Under this method, layers of palm fronds are laid at the bottom of the pit. Then one or two layers of cassava tubers which must be harvested it bruise, are arranged on top of the fronds. Another layer of is laid and tubers arranged on top. This procedure is followed ill tin pit is filled or the tubers to be stored are finished. The top is llh covered with a layer of palm fronds and about 10 cm thick of soil.
The use of boxes has the same procedure, except that moist saw dust is used in place of palm fronds. The moist saw dust is placed round on top of the tubers and the tubers are also arranged in layers.

Advantages
1. It can be used to store cassava tubers up to 6 weeks.
2. The method is cheap and not too laborious.
3. If boxes are used, they can be transported.

Disadvantages






1. Cassava tubers may get rotten if not properly stored
2. It cannot keep tubers for a very long time.

3. Silos
These are used for storing dry grains such as maize, guinea corn and rice. They are made of cement, metal or aluminium and are tall, round, looking like towers.


Figure 3.7.2: Silo used for Storing Dry Grains.

Advantages
1. They protect the products from insects and rodents.
2. They can accommodate large quantities of grains.
3. Because they are aur-right, fumigants can be safely used to protect the grains.
4. They can test for Very long time.

Disadvantages
1. Silos are very expensive to construct
2. They are not movable. . .
3. Grains could mould if not dried properly.

4. Cribs
These are also used to store maize particularly dried unshelled cobs which have been dehusked. Cribs consist of side poles covered by wiwe—mesh or lined closely with thatch or zinc.



DIAGRAM
Figure 3.7.3: Maize Cobs in a Crib.

Advantages
1. It is cheap and easy to use.
2. Grains are protected from rodents and birds.
3. The method can keep maize for a long time.

Disadvantages
1. It cannot accommodate large quantities at a time
2. Does not protect the grains from insects or weevils.

5. Bags or Sacks
These include jute and hesian bags as well as polythene bags. They are used for storing products such as garri, melon, rice and other grains. They can be kept in rooms or store while raised from the ground.

Advantages
1. They are simple and cheap to use.
2. Different sizes are available for use for different quantities of products.
3. They can be used for a wide variety of products.
4. They make transportation of products easy.

DisadvantagesDEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE

28. TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES





29. LAND AND ITS USES
30. AGRICULTURAL LANDS
31. NON-AGRICULTURAL LANDS
32. LAND USE POLICIES
33. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER









69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL

112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION