fabioclass

BARN AND ITS USES


1. Barns
These are used for storing yam tubers. The method involves the tying of yam tubers with strong twine to small vertical poles, which are supported by strong horizontal poles, also tied to solid stakes. Shade is needed over the barn to prevent the tubers from excessive drying

DIAGRAM
Figure 3.7.1: Yam Tubers in a Barn.

Advantages of the barn method
1. It is cheap to construct'as forest woods and ropes can readily obtained (especially in the high forest).
2. The yam tubers do not get rotten quickly because they are raised from the ground
3. It is easy to detect any tuber that is going bad.
4. It can be



used to safeguard yam tubers from being eaten by the mamalian pests (e.g. rodents) and insect pests (e.g. yam beetle)
Disadvantages
1. The method is laborious
2. Yam tubers are affected by weather conditions. For example tubers become dehydrated after
some time.

2. Boxes and Underground Pits or Trenches



These are used for storing cassava tubers. Yam tubers can also be ill lor a short time in underground pits immediately after harvest. Underground pit is most common for storing cassava tubers. Under this method, layers of palm fronds are laid at the bottom of the pit. Then one or two layers of cassava tubers which must be harvested it bruise, are arranged on top of the fronds. Another layer of is laid and tubers arranged on top. This procedure is followed ill tin pit is filled or the tubers to be stored are finished. The top is llh covered with a layer of palm fronds and about 10 cm thick of soil.
The use of boxes has the same procedure, except that moist saw dust is used in place of palm fronds. The moist saw dust is placed round on top of the tubers and the tubers are also arranged in layers.

Advantages
1. It can be used to store cassava tubers up to 6 weeks.
2. The method is cheap and not too laborious.
3. If boxes are used, they can be transported.

Disadvantages




1. Cassava tubers may get rotten if not properly stored
2. It cannot keep tubers for a very long time.

3. Silos
These are used for storing dry grains such as maize, guinea corn and rice. They are made of cement, metal or aluminium and are tall, round, looking like towers.


Figure 3.7.2: Silo used for Storing Dry Grains.

Advantages
1. They protect the products from insects and rodents.
2. They can accommodate large quantities of grains.
3. Because they are aur-right, fumigants can be safely used to protect the grains.
4. They can test for Very long time.

Disadvantages
1. Silos are very expensive to construct
2. They are not movable. . .
3. Grains could mould if not dried properly.

4. Cribs
These are also used to store maize particularly dried unshelled cobs which have been dehusked. Cribs consist of side poles covered by wiwe—mesh or lined closely with thatch or zinc.



DIAGRAM
Figure 3.7.3: Maize Cobs in a Crib.

Advantages
1. It is cheap and easy to use.
2. Grains are protected from rodents and birds.
3. The method can keep maize for a long time.

Disadvantages
1. It cannot accommodate large quantities at a time
2. Does not protect the grains from insects or weevils.

5. Bags or Sacks
These include jute and hesian bags as well as polythene bags. They are used for storing products such as garri, melon, rice and other grains. They can be kept in rooms or store while raised from the ground.

Advantages
1. They are simple and cheap to use.
2. Different sizes are available for use for different quantities of products.
3. They can be used for a wide variety of products.
4. They make transportation of products easy.

Disadvantages
1. They are not solid enough to protect products from rats and insects.
2. They require good rooms or store for safe-keeping.




agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
11. AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS
12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
13. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN AGRICULTURE
14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
15. AGRICULTURAL CREDITS
16. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES
17. QUARANTINE SERVICES
18. VACCINES IN AGRICULTURE
19. FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
20. PROBLEMS OF FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
21. OPERATION FEED THE NATION


22. THE GREEN RESOLUTION
23. LAND TENURE SYSTEMS
24. GOVERNMENT LAWS OF LAND REFORMS
25. FARM INSURANCE SCHEME
26. TYPES OF FARM INSURANCE
27. AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES
28. TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES


29. LAND AND ITS USES
30. AGRICULTURAL LANDS
31. NON-AGRICULTURAL LANDS
32. LAND USE POLICIES
33. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER







69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
91. NITROGEN
92. PHOSPHORUS
93. POTASSIUM
94. CALCIUM
95. MAGNESIUM
96. SULPHUR
97. MICRO NUTRIENT IN GENERAL-TRACE OR MINOR ELEMENTS
98. IRON
99. BORON
100. ZINC



____________________________________
101. MANGANESE
102. SODIUM
103. CHLORINE
104. COPPER
105. COBALT
106. MOLYBDENUM
107. THE CARBON AND NITROGEN CYCLE
108. CARBON CYCLE
109. NITROGEN CYCLE
110. AMMONIUM SALT
111. NITROGEN FIXATION
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS


125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION

168. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
169. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
170. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
171. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
172. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
173. CROP PRODUCTION
174. MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
175. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
176. OIL PALM
177. USES OF PALM OIL
178. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
179. COCOA






180. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
181. HOLING AND LINING
182. YAM
183. LAND PREPARATION
184. SEED RATE
185. SPACING
186. PLANTING DEPT
187. STORAGE OF YAM
188. STAKING
189. HARVESTING OF YAM
190. COW-PEA
191. JUTE
192. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
193. FORAGE GRASSES
194. SILAGE
195. PASTURE
196. TYPES OF PASTURE
197. COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
198. GRASSES
199. LEGUMES
200. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
202. HAY
203. SILAGE
204. FORESTRY
205. IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY
206. FOREST MANAGEMENT
207. FOREST REGULATION
208. DEFORESTATION
209. AFFORESTATION
210. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
211. MAIZE SMUT
212. RICE BLAST
213. MAIZE RUST
214. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
215. COW-PEA MOSAIC
216. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
217. COFFEE RUST
218. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
219. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
220. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
221. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
222. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
223. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
224. PESTSOF CROPS
225. STEM BORERS
226. ARMY WORM
227. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
228. APHIDS
229. WHITE FLY
230. SEED BUGS
231. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
232. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
233. GREEN SPIDER MITE
234. COTTON STAINER
235. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
236. GRASSHOPPER
237. THRIPS
238. LEAF ROLLER
239. BEAN BEETLE
240. RICE WEEVILS
241. RATS
242. SQUIRREL
243. GRASS-CUTTER
244. BIRDS SUCH AS WEAVER BIRD
245. PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
246. CROP IMPROVEMENT
247. AIMS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
248. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
249. METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
250. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
251. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
252. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
253. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
254. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF POULTRY BIRDS
255. THE GIZZARD
256. RUMINANT ANIMALS
257. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONO-GASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMALS
258. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
259. COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
260. THE NEURONS
261. A SYNAPSE ACTION
262. IMPULSE

263. REFLEX ACTION
264. VOLUNTARY ACTION
265. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
266. THE BRAIN
267. PARTS OF THE BRAIN THE SPINAL CORD
268. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
269. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
270. MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
271. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
272. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
273. THE HEART
274. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
275. THE TRACHEA
276. INSPIRATION
277. THE EXPIRATION
278. THE DIAPHRAGM
279. REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS
280. HEAT PERIODS
281. OESTROUS CYCLE
282. MATING
283. GESTATION PERIOD
284. PARTURITION
285. MAMMARY GLAND
286. LACTATION
287. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
288. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
289. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
290. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
291. POULTRY
292. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
293. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
294. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
295. SEMI-INTENSIVE
296. EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
297. PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
298. POULTRY SANITATION
299. ANIMAL NUTRITION
300. RATION
301. CONCENTRATE
302. ROUGHAGE
303. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
304. CARBOHYDRATES
305. PROTEIN
306. FATS
307. MINERALS
308. VITAMINS
309. TYPES OF DIETS
310. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
311. LAYER DIETS
312. BALANCED DIETS
313. LACTATION DIETS
314. MALNUTRITION
315. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
316. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
317. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
318. VIRAL DISEASES
319. RINDER PESTS
320. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
321. BACTERIA DISEASES
322. ANTHRAX
323. BRUCELLOSIS
324. TUBERCULOSIS
325. FUNGAL DISEASES
326. ASPERGILOSIS
327. RING WORM
328. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
329. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
330. COCCIDIOSIS
331. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
332. ENDO PARASITES
333. TAPE WORM
334. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
335. LIVER FLUKE
336. ECTO PARASITES
337. TICK
338. LICE
339. MITES
340. FISH FARMING
341. IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING
342. ESTABLISHMENT OF FISH PONDS
343. HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OF FISH
344. ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
345. PROCESSES OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
346. GENETIC INTRODUCTION(MIGRATION)
347. SYSTEMS OF BREEDING
348. INBREEDING






349. OUT-BREEDING
350. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
351.

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