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ANIMAL DISEASES AND PARASITES



ANIMAL DISEASES AND PARASITES


Objectives: Students should be able to: 1. Identify the common diseases in the various types of farm animals. 2. State their symptoms, the methods of control and prevention 3. Identify common livestock parasites and give their effects on, farm animals. 4. Outline the control measures for each parasite.

What is a disease?

A disease may be defined as an abnormality in health. It leac a deviation in the normal performance of the organism. 11.2 Types of disease of farm animals Diseases can be classified according to their causes into: (a) Pathogenic diseases: These are caused by living organisms, These organisms include: (i) Viruses (ii) Bacteria (iii) Fungi (iv) Protozoan (v) Larger organisms such as ticks, lice, worms, etc. (b) Nutritional deficiency diseases such as rickets, ketosis. (c) Diseases caused by inanimate objects such as environment nnd chemicals.




How does disease get to animals?

This is through: 1. Droppings or faeces of infected animals
2. Contaminated feeds and water
3. Contact with infected animals
4. Air
5. Insects, feed or water troughs, etc.

How to identify a diseased/sick animal

The following signs help in identifying a sick or diseased animal:
1. Loss of appetite
2. Persistent coughing
3. Fever (high temperature)
4. Watery, bad smelling or blood stained faeces.

5. Inability to rise and sluggishness.
6. Rough skin/coat, and drooping of tail or wings in case of birds,
7. Discharges from the

eyes, nostrils, mouth, or anus.
8. Emaciation
9. Death

Summary of some common diseases of farm animals

The table below shows a summary of common diseases of animals:


Name of disease.
Causative agent.
Animal affected .
Symptoms Mode of transmission.
Effects.


Control measures .


Foot and Mouth disease.


Virus

Cattle Sores on feet, lips, tongue, cheek, salivation and foaming, inability to eat, weakness, lameness and death Transmitted by contact with infected animals or bv contact with contaminated feed materials from diseased herd. Serious loss of animals through death. Vaccination. Isolation

of diseased animals from healthy ones. Bury dead animals deeply. No treatment. Rinder pest Virus Cattle High fever, blood stained shooting diarrhea. Difficult breathing and animals grind their teeth. Death rate is very high Through contamination with infected animal and eating contaminated food. Death of animals.


Vaccination.

Isolation of diseased animals.
Kill and bury deeply infected animals. No treatment of Newcastle disease (NCD) Virus Poultry Drop in feed intake, severe respiratory difficulties. Neck twisting and paralysis of the legs or wings. Laying of soft shelled eggs, water greenish diarrhea Through contact with faeces of infected birds, nasal and oral discharge from diseased birds and materials, contaminated by the virus. Low egg production in layers. High mortality rate resulting in loss of birds. Routine vaccination using freeze dried NCD vaccine given either intra-occular in young birds or inter-muscular in older birds. Good sanitary practices. No treatment.


BRUCELLOSIS (Contagious abortion) Bacteria (Brucclla Abortus)

Cattle Irritation and catarrhal conditions in the womb of the pregnant cow. This results in the expulsion of foetues at about the 5th – 7th month of pregnancy as still birth Contacted when animals feed on contaminated pasture or other feed. Also servicing by infected bull and flies that have rested on the foetus of affected animals can transmit the disease Loss of foetus. Reduction in the level of an animal’s production. The disease is zoonotic. That is can affect human beings. Vaccination. Report any occurrence to the nearest veterinary officer.

ANTHRAX Bacteria (Baccilus anthracis)

Cattle, sheep and goat In acute cases, the first sign is death. In less acute cases, there may be blood stained discharges from nostrils and mouth and swelling in the neck, genitals and lower abdomen. Through contact with infected animals and their products Loss of animals. Note: Do not open carcass of infected animals as the disease is also zoonotic. Vaccination. Burn or bury deeply any diseased animal. Disinfect properly after disease has occurred in a herd.

TUBERCULOSIS Bacteria (Mycobacterium spp)

Occurs in most animals Infects lungs resulting in persistent cough, emaciation, loss of condition and finally death Contact with infect animal. It can also be through contact with discharge or sputum from cough. Milk infected with the bacterium can equally transmit the disease. Lowers productivity and also results in loss of animals. The disease is also zoonotic. No treatment. Kill and bury deeply infected animal. Routine checking by a veterinary doctor is important. Good hygiene. Vaccination.






FOWL THYPHOID Bacteria

Poultry Birds become dull and pass out yellowish diarrhea Contact with the dropping from infected bird or contaminated food, water or soil. Loss of birds Proper sanitation. Vaccination. Contact a veterinary doctor CHRONIC RESPIRATORY DISEASE (CRD) Not yet identified. Could be bacteria or virus Poultry Nasal discharges rattling sopund during breathing, loss in weight. Through contact with infected birds and their nasal discharges Lowers production in birds and also results in loss of birds Good sanitation. Avoid use of saw dust as litter. Use antibiotics. Consult a veterinary doctor or officer RINGWORM (Favus in Poultry) Fungus

All animals and birds Lesions or scab on the skin of the animals, usually irritating and causing the falling off of the animal’s hair. In Poultry, the disease is common on the combs and wattles producing grey patches The fungus is usually spread from infected to healthy one through contact Results in loss of hair in animals resulting in low market value due to poor appearance of the animal Maintain clean conditions. Isolate infected animals and treat with iodine as surface dressing TRYPANOSOMIASIS Protozoa (Trypanosoma spp) Mainly Cattle. Also attacks goat and sheep Intermittent fever. General weakness. Hair on tail often pull out. General loss of condition and finally death.

Transmitted by tse-tse flies (Glossina spp) by biting infected animal, sucking the protozoan and injecting it into the blood of a healthy animal. Drop in level of animal production death Use drugs e.g. trypanosomide. Rear resistant breeds. Also use chemical to kill the flies and clear bushes around animals pens to ward off the flies




COCCIDIOSIS Protozoa (Coccidia Parasite-E imeria spp)

Poultry Blood stained watery droppings. Ruffled feathers. Loss of weight due to fall in feed intake. Death of birds. By taking contaminated food and water from the droppings of infected birds Drop in egg production. Death of birds Maintain high hygienic conditions. Disinfect poultry house before stokcing. Use cocci-diostats e.g. Sulphamethazone added to drinking water. SCABIES Fungus Cattle, Goat, Sheep It causes very itchy little lumps that can appear all over the body of the animal. It is very ommon on the udder of female animals and the genitals of the male. Scratching can cause infection, producing sores with pus and some times swollen lymph nodes or fever. Spreads by touching the affected parts of animals or by beddings. Causes loss of animal hair and destruction of skin. Could affect level of production. Maintain high level of cleanliness in the animal houses. Dip animals in solution lindane.


Other diseases include (a) Rabbit coccidiosis: This is caused by a protozoan. The signs of the disease include blood-stained faeces and diarrhea. Prevention is by separating young animals from old ones. Diseased rabbits should also be separated. Rabbit hutches should be cleared always. Treatment is by the use of sulphonamide drugs. (b) Swine fever or hog cholera: This affects pig and is caused by virus. The virus is usually present in faeces and blood. The signs are shivering, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever and diarrhoea. 11.6 Animal Parasites A parasite is a living organism which establishes itself on or in another organism called host, from which it gets its food. parasites are found inside the host.


These are called Endo-Parasites,

e.g. Tape Worm, Round Worm, Liver Fluke and Trypanosome. Those found on the body of animals are called Ecto-Parasites. e.g. Ticks, Lice, Mites. Some parasites of farm animals include:





1.

Ecto-parasites

(a) Ticks: These are eight-legged organisms belonging to the group arachnids. They feed on farm animals by sucking blood from them. Animals mostly affected by ticks are cattle, sheep, goats and dogs. The effects of ticks on the farm animals include (a) Anaemia (b) Irritation leading to sore formation on the skin (c) Destruction of skin (d) Transmission of diseases such as red water, etc. DIAGRAM Figure 2.11.la: Ticks, DIAGRAM Figure2.11b: Lice DIAGRAM Figure 2.11.c Tsetsefly (transmits typanesomes by biting) Ticks can be conlrolled by: (i) using clean environment for animals (ii) practising rotational grazing (iii) spraying pens and animals with chemicals such as malathion. (b) Lice: These are small wingless insects which live under the hair of animals or feathers of birds. They also feed by sucking blood from animals, just like the ticks. Lice cause irritation which results in sore formation and creates avenues for disease agents. They also cause anaemia. Lice can be controlled by: (i) maintaining clean environment (ii) avoiding over crowding (iii) dipping animals in water containing chemicals such, as lindane and DOT.

2.

Endoparasites

(a) Roundworms: These are elongated, cylindrical, smooth-skinned, whitish worms, which are pointed at both ends. They are common parasites of cattle, pigs, and poultry. Roundworm is found in the animal's intestine where it gets its food. This parasite deprives the animals of their food thereby reducing their weight. It can also result in slow growth and loss of appetite. The parasite could cause stomach disorders such as diarrhoea, vomitting, etc. Control is by: (i) maintaining good hygienic conditions in animal environment, and (ii) use of dewormers such as piperazine. (b) Liver fluke: This is a short flat

worm which attacks mainly cattle and sjheep". It sucks blood from the animal thereby causing emaciation and reducing productivity. It may lead to the death of the animal. Control can be achieved by: (i) the use of appropriate drugs (ii) supplying clean drinking water, and (iii) destruction of snails on grazing land because they helo to harbor the pest DIAGRAM Figure 2.1 1.2a: Roundworms DIAGRAM Figure 2.1 1.2b: Liver Fluke Figure 2.1 1.2c: Tapeworm (i) Tapeworm: This is a long segmented flat worm which looks like the tape of the tailor. The parasite mainly affects pigs and cattle. The tapeworm possesses hooks and suckers in the scolex and these help to attach the parasite to its host while the suckers assist in feeding. In animals, the presence of tapeworm in tissues or organs could cause some physiological disorders, such as anaemia, abdominal pains, weakness and loss of weight. The parasite can be controlled by: (i) maintaining good hygienic conditions (ii) use of drugs (iii) proper cooking of meat before eating by man which serves as primary host. General methods of controlling animal diseases Diseases can be: (i) Prevented, and (ii) Controlled. (a) Prevention: This involves the following practices: (a) Good sanitation/hygiene (b) Good feeding . (c) Vaccination (d) Quarantine (e) Breeding (f) Separation (g) Rotational grazing. (b) Control: This involves; (i) Treatments The use of drugs which may be in the form ot powder, liquid or solids, given in ` water, feeds or as injections. (ii) Destruction of diseased animals. They arc either burnt or buried. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Explain the meaning of: (a) Disease (b) Parasite 2. Differentiate between endo and ectoparasites. Give two examples of each. 3. List five methods of preventing animals diseases. 4. How would you control tapeworm as a parasite in your animals. 5. List eight common diseases that may affect farm animals in your country. 6. Enumerate the effects of ticks on farm animals.


Stages of Diseases Development and Transmission

There are four major stages of disease development and transmission in crops.
These are:





1. Invasion: This is the stage where 'the disease causing agent comes in contact with the host plant.
2. Establishment
At this stage the disease causing agent enters and establishes llfe in the crop tissues.
3. Injury
This is the stage where the disease pathogen multiplies itself leading to the actual attack of the host.
4. Mission/Spread
This is the stage where the disease organism spreads from one plant to a healthy one. The process is aided by wind, water, insects contact and others.


Prevention and Control of Crop Diseases

It is better and more economical to prevent a disease from, crops than to control it when it has occurred. The sure way luting diseases, in farms is to prevent the disease causing organism from reaching the crops. This is possible through regular removal of rotten materials from the farm, routine spraying of crops planting resistant varieties and so on.

However, crop diseases can be controlled in the following ways:

1.

Cultural Control

The techniques adopted in this control measure include:
(i) Proper care for plants such as regular weeding. This practice reduces the amount of disease attack on the crops.
(ii) Bunting, of farmland: This involves setting farmland on fire before cultivation. The fire helps to kill disease causing agent such as bacteria, fungi, virus and others in the soil.
(iii) Karly Planting: Early planting enables the crops to escape the outbreak of some crop diseases.
(iv) Practicing Crop Rotation: This practice, ensures that crop which suffer from similar diseases do not follow each other in the same rotation. This is to make sure that the cycle of the disease development is disturbed.
(v) Removal of dead plants and other disease harbouring agents from the farm. The source of the disease is removed when this is done.







2.

Biological Control

This involves the use of good ar.cl resistant crops varieties to plant. It is a very successful method of controlling most seriou^ plant diseases. Over the years, scientists have developed crop types which have great resistance to some deadly crop diseases. The use of which helps to control most diseases of crops.

3.

Chemical Control

This involves the use of chemicals to kill the disease organism affecting the crops. For example: (i) Fungicides such as perenox. Bordeaux mixture, and copper sulphate are used in the
control of fungus diseases.
(ii) Virus diseases can be controlled by using appropriate chemicals such as vetox 85 to kill the vectors e.g. aphids. mealy-bugs white flies, etc. that transmit the virus diseases.
(iii) Most bacterial diseases can now be treated using appropriatle chemicals (bacteriacides) such as Agrosan 5W mercurial duss and acid.
(iv) Nematodes can be controlled by using nematicides such a nemagoiu and DDT.



agricultural biology topics



1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
11. AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS
12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
13. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN AGRICULTURE
14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
15. AGRICULTURAL CREDITS
16. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES
17. QUARANTINE SERVICES
18. VACCINES IN AGRICULTURE
19. FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
20. PROBLEMS OF FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
21. OPERATION FEED THE NATION


22. THE GREEN RESOLUTION
23. LAND TENURE SYSTEMS
24. GOVERNMENT LAWS OF LAND REFORMS
25. FARM INSURANCE SCHEME
26. TYPES OF FARM INSURANCE
27. AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES
28. TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES


29. LAND AND ITS USES
30. AGRICULTURAL LANDS
31. NON-AGRICULTURAL LANDS
32. LAND USE POLICIES
33. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER







69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
91. NITROGEN
92. PHOSPHORUS
93. POTASSIUM
94. CALCIUM
95. MAGNESIUM
96. SULPHUR
97. MICRO NUTRIENT IN GENERAL-TRACE OR MINOR ELEMENTS
98. IRON
99. BORON
100. ZINC



____________________________________
101. MANGANESE
102. SODIUM
103. CHLORINE
104. COPPER
105. COBALT
106. MOLYBDENUM
107. THE CARBON AND NITROGEN CYCLE
108. CARBON CYCLE
109. NITROGEN CYCLE
110. AMMONIUM SALT
111. NITROGEN FIXATION
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS


125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION

168. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
169. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
170. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
171. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
172. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
173. CROP PRODUCTION
174. MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
175. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
176. OIL PALM
177. USES OF PALM OIL
178. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
179. COCOA






180. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
181. HOLING AND LINING
182. YAM
183. LAND PREPARATION
184. SEED RATE
185. SPACING
186. PLANTING DEPT
187. STORAGE OF YAM
188. STAKING
189. HARVESTING OF YAM
190. COW-PEA
191. JUTE
192. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
193. FORAGE GRASSES
194. SILAGE
195. PASTURE
196. TYPES OF PASTURE
197. COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
198. GRASSES
199. LEGUMES
200. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
202. HAY
203. SILAGE
204. FORESTRY
205. IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY
206. FOREST MANAGEMENT
207. FOREST REGULATION
208. DEFORESTATION
209. AFFORESTATION
210. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
211. MAIZE SMUT
212. RICE BLAST
213. MAIZE RUST
214. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
215. COW-PEA MOSAIC
216. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
217. COFFEE RUST
218. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
219. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
220. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
221. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
222. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
223. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
224. PESTSOF CROPS
225. STEM BORERS
226. ARMY WORM
227. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
228. APHIDS
229. WHITE FLY
230. SEED BUGS
231. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
232. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
233. GREEN SPIDER MITE
234. COTTON STAINER
235. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
236. GRASSHOPPER
237. THRIPS
238. LEAF ROLLER
239. BEAN BEETLE
240. RICE WEEVILS
241. RATS
242. SQUIRREL
243. GRASS-CUTTER
244. BIRDS SUCH AS WEAVER BIRD
245. PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
246. CROP IMPROVEMENT
247. AIMS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
248. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
249. METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
250. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
251. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
252. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
253. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
254. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF POULTRY BIRDS
255. THE GIZZARD
256. RUMINANT ANIMALS
257. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONO-GASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMALS
258. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
259. COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
260. THE NEURONS
261. A SYNAPSE ACTION
262. IMPULSE

263. REFLEX ACTION
264. VOLUNTARY ACTION
265. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
266. THE BRAIN
267. PARTS OF THE BRAIN THE SPINAL CORD
268. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
269. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
270. MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
271. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
272. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
273. THE HEART
274. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
275. THE TRACHEA
276. INSPIRATION
277. THE EXPIRATION
278. THE DIAPHRAGM
279. REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS
280. HEAT PERIODS
281. OESTROUS CYCLE
282. MATING
283. GESTATION PERIOD
284. PARTURITION
285. MAMMARY GLAND
286. LACTATION
287. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
288. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
289. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
290. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
291. POULTRY
292. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
293. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
294. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
295. SEMI-INTENSIVE
296. EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
297. PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
298. POULTRY SANITATION
299. ANIMAL NUTRITION
300. RATION
301. CONCENTRATE
302. ROUGHAGE
303. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
304. CARBOHYDRATES
305. PROTEIN
306. FATS
307. MINERALS
308. VITAMINS
309. TYPES OF DIETS
310. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
311. LAYER DIETS
312. BALANCED DIETS
313. LACTATION DIETS
314. MALNUTRITION
315. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
316. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
317. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
318. VIRAL DISEASES
319. RINDER PESTS
320. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
321. BACTERIA DISEASES
322. ANTHRAX
323. BRUCELLOSIS
324. TUBERCULOSIS
325. FUNGAL DISEASES
326. ASPERGILOSIS
327. RING WORM
328. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
329. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
330. COCCIDIOSIS
331. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
332. ENDO PARASITES
333. TAPE WORM
334. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
335. LIVER FLUKE
336. ECTO PARASITES
337. TICK
338. LICE
339. MITES
340. FISH FARMING
341. IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING
342. ESTABLISHMENT OF FISH PONDS
343. HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OF FISH
344. ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
345. PROCESSES OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
346. GENETIC INTRODUCTION(MIGRATION)
347. SYSTEMS OF BREEDING
348. INBREEDING






349. OUT-BREEDING
350. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
351.


STAGES OF

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