popular post of all time

new posts

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

ANIMAL NUTRITION



ANIMAL NUTRITION

Identify types of feed. 2. Identify types of feeding materials and equipment. Introduction Nutrition refers to the art and science of feeding animals. Food nutrients are called nutrients. Different types of feeds contain different nutrients.









9.1 Types of Feeds Generally feeds may be classified into: (a) Concentrates (b) Succulents (c) Roughages (d) Supplements and additives. 1. Concentrates These are made up of: 1. Cereals such as maize, rice, millet, sorghum, etc. These are also referred to as basal feeds or energy concentrates. 2. Leguminous seeds such as groundnut cake, soya beans cake, and others such as palm kernel cake, cotton seed cake. These are plant protein concentrates. 3. Fish meal and blood meal. These are animal protein concentrates. Concentrates are easily digested by farm animals. Succulent Feeds These consist of: 1. Roots and tubers such as yam cassava, cocoyam,

2. Vegetables such as water leaf and shoko 3. forages such as pasture grasses 4. silage made from green fresh grass 5. Cane molasses mainly from sugar cane Succulent feeds'are very high in water and are easily digested by lin in animals. Most green crops can be used as succulent feeds when they are young. 3. Roughages These consist of dry grasses which usually add bulk to animal feeds. Examples are Hay, Straw. Hay: This is grass cut. dried and preserved for animals future use.

4.

Supplements and Additives

Feed supplements are added to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients which might be lacking in the main feed. The follow ing could serve as feed supplements: 1. Cotton seed cake 2. Soya bean meal 3. Groundnut cake 4. Fish meal 5. Bone meal 6. Egg shell meal 7. Oyster shell meal 8. Saltlicks 9. Limestone 10. Vitamins The feed additives include: 1. Antibiotics 2. Amino acids 3. Hormones and so on. These help to stabilize the feeds as well as improve on the quality and storability of the feeds. 9.2 Feed Nutrients Many elements in varying combinations make up feed nutrients. These elements include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium, iron, cobalt, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, copper, flourine, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, selenium and caromium. Based on the nutrients they supply the nutrients in animal feeds can be classified into six groups, viz: 1. Carbonhydrates Supplying energy, e.g cereals, roots and tubers,








2. Proteins Needed for growth and repair of worn out tissues, e.g legumes such as soya bean, cotton seed, groundnut cakes, etc 3. Fats Supplying energy and keeping the body temperature under control e.g. milk, coconuts, tubers, etc. 4. Minerals They helo to carry out vital body function. Examples are: calcium, iron, iodine, potassium, sodium and so on. 5. Vitamins They help to keep the animal healthy. examples are vitamins A, B,C,D, E and K 6. Water This is a constituent of body fluid. It helps to regular body temperature, lubricate joints, transport body materials and breakdown (digestions) of food. 9.3 Types of Ration Rations are classified according to the purpose they serve in the animals body. They include in:


1. Maintenance Ration
This is the food given to animals to keep their live - weight constant. The ration is so formulated as to enable the animal to carry on its metabolic activities like respiration, digestion, blood circulation imnement and sleeping ration. 2. Balanced Ration Ration supplied over and above that needed for maintenance purposes. The ration is specially formulated to of the following purposes: reproduction, work, fattening and so on. Example is layers mash in poultry


3. Balanced Ration
This is the ration that contains all the essential nutrients needed by the body in the correct proportion. The composition of a balanced ration includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins well as water. Malnutrition: Malnutrition results when a ration does not provide all the essential food nutrients in the correct proportion. That is both in quality and quantity. This could result if the food In the animal is very low in calorific value and as a result only little energy is supplied. This condition is called marasmus. Alternatively the foot may be very rich in one nutrients such as carbonhydrate and and poor in others such as minerals, proteins and vitamins.

Malnutrition, as in improper feeding, results in nutrients deficiency diseases such as rickets (poor formation of limbs) and ketosis (low level of blood glucose). Malnutrition may lead to: (i) retarded growth in the a (ii) low production (iii) physical deformities (iv) ill-health (v) death. 9.4 Feeding Equipment for Animals 1. Feeding Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9. la: Wooden Feeding Trou DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.1 b: Aluminium Feeding Trough Prepared feeds are put inside for the animal 2. Water Troughs DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2a: Plastic Water Trough used for Chicks DIAGRAM Figure 2.9.2b: 4 ½ litres water trough made of aluminium used by older birds, STUDY QUESTIONS 1. List three main types of feeds ad give two examples of each. 2. Classify animal feeds based on the nutrients they supply 3. Explain the following terms: i. Maintenance ration ii. Production ration 4. Give four effects of malnutrition in farm animals. 5. List ten feed supplements and additives that a farmer, could add to the main feed to supply one or more nutrients that ma\ be lacking.

here are some useful post for you

1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
4. ORGANIC MANURING
5. FARM YARD MANURE
6. HUMUS
7. COMPOST
8. CROP ROTATION
9. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
10. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
11. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
12. ORGANIC MANURING
13. FARM YARD MANURE
14. HUMUS
15. COMPOST
16. CROP ROTATION
17. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
18. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
19. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
20. INCUBATORS
21. MILKING MACHINE
22. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
23. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
24. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
25. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION
26. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
27. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
28. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
29. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
30. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING
40. YAM
41. LAND PREPARATION FOR YAM
42. DEPT OF PLANTING
43. SPACING OF YAM
44. PLANTING DEPT OF YAM
45. STORAGE OF YAM
46. STAKING OF YAM
47. HARVESTING OF YAM
48. COWPEA
JUTE
49. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
50. FORAGE GRASSES
51. SILAGE
52. PASTURE
53. TYPES OF PASTURE
COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
54. GRASSES
55. LEGUMES
56. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
57. 201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
58. HAY SILAGE
59. FORESTRY IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY 206. FOREST MANAGEMENT FOREST REGULATION DEFORESTATION AFFORESTATION
60. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
61. MAIZE SMUT
62. RICE BLAST
63. MAIZE RUST
64. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
65. COW-PEA MOSAIC
66. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
67. COFFEE RUST
68. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
69. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
70. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
71. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
72. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
73. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
74. PESTS OF CROPS
75. STEM BORERS
76. ARMY WORM

77. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
78. APHIDS
79. WHITE FLY SEED BUGS
80. CASSAVA CULTIVATION
81. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
82. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
83. GREEN SPIDER MITE
84. COTTON STAINER
85. COTTON
86. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
87. GRASSHOPPER
88. THRIPS
89. LEAF ROLLER
90. BEAN BEETLE
91. RICE WEEVILS
92. . PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
93. CROP IMPROVEMENT
94. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
95. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
96. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
97. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
98. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
99. RUMINANT ANIMALS
100. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
101. THE NEURONS
102. A SYNAPSE ACTION IMPULSE REFLEX ACTION VOLUNTARY ACTION
103. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
104. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
105. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
106. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
107. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
108. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
109. THE HEART
110. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
111. THE TRACHEA INSPIRATION THE EXPIRATION THE DIAPHRAGM
112. HEAT PERIODS OESTROUS CYCLE
113. MATING
114. PARTURITION
115. MAMMARY GLAND
116. LACTATION
117. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
118. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
119. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
120. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
121. POULTRY
122. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
123. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
124. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
125. . SEMI-INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE SYSTEM

PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
126. POULTRY SANITATION

127. ANIMAL NUTRITION
128. RATION
129. CONCENTRATE
130. ROUGHAGE
131. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
132. CARBOHYDRATES
133. PROTEIN FATS
134. MINERALS
135. VITAMINS
136. FEEDING MECHANISMS IN HOLOZOIC ORGANISMS
137. TYPES OF DIETS
138. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
139. LAYER DIETS
140. BALANCED DIETS
141. LACTATION DIETS
142. MALNUTRITION
143. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
144. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
145. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
146. VIRAL DISEASES
147. RINDER PESTS
148. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
149. BACTERIA DISEASES
150. ANTHRAX
151. BRUCELLOSIS
152. TUBERCULOSIS
153. FUNGAL DISEASES


154. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
155. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
156. COCCIDIOSIS
157. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
158. ENDO PARASITES
159. TAPE WORM
160. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
161. LIVER FLUKE
162. ECTO PARASITES
163. TICK
164. LICE







70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES