fabioclass

PROPAGATION OF CROPS

PROPAGATION OF CROPS

Obejectives: The students should be able to:
1. Outline the various methods of propagating crops.
2. List the various methods of sowing seeds,
3. State the advantages and disadvantages of each method of propagation.
4. Identify the various organs of vegetative propagation.

Propagation is the multiplication of crops population for the continued existence of crop species.

1.

Sexual or seed propagation

This method makes use of seeds. It is common with both as pollinated and cross-pollinated crops. It is sometimes the only possible way to propagate some crops like tomato, maize, rice, beans and groundnut.




Seeds can be collected from healthy, vigorous and high yielding plants. These are sown either directly on the farm or first in nursery before they are transplanted to the farm. Examples of crop that are propagated by seeds are maize, rice, tomato, okro, cocoa, palm, rubber, mango, cashew and guava.

Seed and fruit formation: The main reproductive organ flowering plants is the flower. The flower consists of two major parts - the male and the female parts. The stamen is the ' reproductive organ and it is made up of filaments carrying anthers which contain the pollen grains. The pistil is the female reproductive organ. It consists of the stigma which receives the pollen grains during pollination; style which connects the stigma to the ovary through which the pollen tube grows during the process of fertilizers: and the ovary which contains the ovules which develop Into seeds.
After fertilization, a zygote is formed from the ovule. This develops to form an embryo. The ovule eventually develops into the seeds, while the ovary which contains the ovule develops into a fruit. Therefore, a fruit can be described as fully grown, fertilized ovary containing fully developed ovules the seeds.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit




Classification of fruits:

Fruits may be classified as simple, footpound, and aggregate. Simple fruits are those formed from a flower with a monocarpous pistil. Examples are beans, lemon and mango. Compound/multiple fruits are formed from an inflorescence or bunch whose fruitlets are fused together to form a , jingle large fruits. Examples are pineapple and jack fruit. Aggregate joints are formed from a single flower with an apocarpous pistil, carpel constitutes a fruittet. An example is kolanut.
Again fruits can also be divided into two: fleshy and dry fruits.
(i)

Fleshy or succulent fruits:

This group includes:
1. Berry: This has a fleshy pericarp with hard seeds which are embedded in the fleshy and pulpy endocarp. Examples are tomato and guava.

2.

Hesperiditrm:

This class of fruit is made up of distinct chambers of separated sheets of endocarp. The epicarp and mesocarp are fused together to form the skin. Seeds are embedded in each chamber. Examples are orange, lemon, lime, tangerine.
3.

Drupe:

this consists of a thin epicarp. fleshy or fibrous mesocarp and a stony or hard endocarp surrounding the see Examples are mango, coconut and palm fruit.
4.

Pome:

This consists of an outer covering and a fleshy edible part which are formed by the swelling of the receptacle. Examples are pear and apple.
5.

Sorosis:

This is a fleshy multiple false fruit which develop from a dense inflorescence. Every part of each flower forms part of the fruit while the peduncle swells to form the core. Example
are pineapple and Jack fruit.


DIAGRAM
Figure 2.4.2a: Internal Structure of Orange (Hesperidium)
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit


DIAGRAM
Figure 2.4.2b: Internal Structure of Coconut (Drape)

DIAGRAM


Figure 2.4.2c: Pome (Peat)

DIAGRAM

Figure 2.4.2d: Sorosis (Pineapple)

(ii)

Dry fruits:

These are fruits which have hard, dry pericarp. They include:
1. Legume: This has one carpel which can split along two edges. Examples are cowpea, groundnut.
2. Capsule: This has many joined carpels which split along all structures from base to the apex. Examples are okro, cotton.
3. Caryopsis: This is a simple dry one seeded fruit which does not split open (indehiscent). Examples are maize, guinea corn, millet and other cereals.
4. Nut: This has a hard pericarp which can be broken or cracked. Examples are cashew nut, walnut, almond.


Advantages of sexual or seed propagation

1. It is very easy to practice. That is seeds can be carried conveniently to the farm
2. It brings about easy multiplication of crop population.
3. Well stored seeds can remain viable for a long time.
4. It is a sure way to start a disease free crop.
5. It can be used to improve crops through cross-breeding.

Disadvantages of sexual or seed propagation

1. Some crops take long time to mature and fruit when planted by seeds. Example is orange.
2. Some seeds are lost in the soil during propagation because of termites, rats and hare.
3. It is difficult to grow crops that are seedless with this method



Seed treatment before sowing:

1. Pre-soak the seeds. This is to allow some very hard secdi to absorb water that will aid germination.
2. Scarification is carried out to loosen the surface of the seeds for easy emergence of the radical and plmule.
3. Chemical dressing of seeds. This is done so that disease organisms do not affect the seeds. It is also to prevent pests from destroying the seeds.







2.

Asexual or vegetative propagation

This involves the use of parts of plant in multiplying the plant, parts of plant such as roots, stem and leaves can be used instead of seeds. For example, the root can be used to grow breadfruit and potato. The leaf can be used to multiply the plant Bryophyllum. Crops such as cassava and sugar-cane can be grown from stem.

Methods of Asexual or Vegetative Propagation:

There are several methods of asexual or vegetative propagation. These are:
1. Budding 4. Layering
2. Grafting 5. Marcotting
3. Cutting 6. Others.

1.

Budding:

This is the bringing together of the bud and stock. The bud is taken from a tree already producing or matured. This forms the bud stick or slip. The stock is a young plant of about a vear old.

During budding, a T-shaped cut or inverted T-shaped is made at about 45 cm from the ground on the stem of the stock plant. The cut shape is slightly raised to expose the cambium. The bud is carefully slipped into the raised bark and pressed firmly to ensure that the cambia of both bud and stock unite together.

It is tied with plastic material, or any device to hold it in place. This should be done quickly to prevent the bud from drying. Air and water should be prevented from the cut until the bud has taken' or heal together with the stock. This will show when the bud remains green. The bud then shoots after some days. When it becomes well established, the part of the stock above the bud should be cut-off. The cut surface should be to avoid fungal or bacterial infection. It is commonly used in citrus.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit
DIAGRAM
Figure 2 .4 Ja, b, c, d and e: Budding Method .

2.

Grafting:

This is the union of the stock and scion. The part of the plant whose root is in the ground is called the stock while the stem removed from other plant is called scion. The scion is normally attached to the stock for grafting to take place. The two plants must be of the same species closely related species. The plant should be of the same age and size for grafting to be possible.
Both plants are cut in a slant or V-shape to provide good surfaces for contact. They are then tied together with plastic tape or any device to keep them in place. The junction is rubbed with grafting wax to prevent the entrance of air water and pathogens. It is advisable to water until when the wrapping may be removed after two weeks.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit
DIAGRAM
Figure 2.4.4: Grafting Method

Advantages of budding and grafting:

1. They are used to bring good qualities in two crop species together. Examples are high yiejd, taste and resistance to diseases.
2. They are used in perpetuating clones.
3. Budded plants mature very early. This is because the bud tends to assume the age of the parent plants.
4. They produce plants with uniform qualities.
5. They take the advantages of the roots of a more resistant stock to thrive.
6. Destroyed parts of a plant could be replaced by graft-tag.


3.

Layering:

This involves bending a shoot or branch of a plant to the ground so that the nodes can make contact with the soil. It is then pegged below the ground and covered with rich soil to provide good medium for root development. When roots have emerged the branch is cut from the parent plant. This can be transplanted after a time as rooted cuttings. Layering can be used in coffee, cocoa and kola production.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit


DIAGRAM AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit
Figure 2.4.5: Layering Method

4.

Cutting:

This involves the use of mature stem or branch stem to propagate plants. This is a very common method of many crops such as cassava, ixora. cotton and sugar-cane. The plants produced, have the same characteristics as the original plant from which the cuttings were obtained. Cuttings can be obtained from soft wood as in sweet potato, semi hard wood as in cassava and hard wood as in hibiscus plant. I hey should be cut from stems that have started to harden. The cutting should be about 20 cm long or convenient lengths, with two to three nodes or buds. It should be put into the ground to enable it have contact with the soil. It should be watered after planting or raised in shade during dry periods or planted during the rains.





5.

Marcotting:

Marcotting is a practical vegetative propagation method. In this practice, the bark of a branch is peeled off with a knife, up to a considerable length. This should not be more than 5 cm long.
Soil rich in organic manure is tied to the peeled portion by means of coconut husks or any suitable device. It is watered to keep moist always. After a time, roots will grow out of the peeled portion.
As the roots become strong enough, the branch is cut off the plant. The rooted branch is planted into the soil to give rise to a new plant.

It is used for plants whose cuttings do not produce roots easily. It is employed in fruit crops such as lemon and man no as well as shrubs.
Figure 2.4.6: Marcotting
6.

Other methods:

Some plants are grown or propagated means of suckers as in pineapple and plantain, tubers as in yam, under-ground stem (corms) in coco-yam, bulbs in onion. Vines (runners) in Irish potato. Some are grown from rhizomes as in grasses and ginger with horizontal underground stems, containing nodes and inter-nodes. Also, the roots of plants can be used as is the case of breadfruit-and carrot and cut leaf as in the case of bryophyllum.





AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit

Advantages of vegetative propagation:

1. It enables crop to produce in very short time e.g. citrus.
2. Plants propagated vegetatively Have uniform growth rate.
3. They can stand a more adverse environmental conditions e.g. poor soil.
4. Plants that do not produce viable seeds can be propagated by this method.
5. The offspring are identical to the parent plant always
6. It is easy to obtain planting materials.
7. Many flowers or ornamental plants arel easily grown with the method.





Disadvantage of vegetative propagation:

1. It is sometimes very laborious because planting materials are bulky.
2. Diseases are easily transferred from parent to offspring.
3. Vegetative parts of plant cannot be stored for a long time for planting.
4. Genetic improvement of crop is impossible.




STUDY QUESTIONS

1. Outline the various methods of crop propagation.
2. State Three advantages and disadvantages of seed or sexual propagation.
3. Enumerate Five types of vegetative propagation of crops.describe any Three of such methods.
4. State four advantages of budding and grafting as methods of vegetative propagation.
5. What are the advantages of vegetative propagation of crops?
6. Write short notes on the following:
i. Vegetative propagation
ii. Marcotting
iii. Caryopsis
iv. drupe
7. (a) Describe layering as a vegetative method of crop propagation.
(b) Mention some crops that can be propagated by layering.



agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
11. AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS
12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
13. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN AGRICULTURE
14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
15. AGRICULTURAL CREDITS
16. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES
17. QUARANTINE SERVICES
18. VACCINES IN AGRICULTURE
19. FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
20. PROBLEMS OF FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
21. OPERATION FEED THE NATION


22. THE GREEN RESOLUTION
23. LAND TENURE SYSTEMS
24. GOVERNMENT LAWS OF LAND REFORMS
25. FARM INSURANCE SCHEME
26. TYPES OF FARM INSURANCE
27. AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES
28. TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES


29. LAND AND ITS USES
30. AGRICULTURAL LANDS
31. NON-AGRICULTURAL LANDS
32. LAND USE POLICIES
33. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER







69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
91. NITROGEN
92. PHOSPHORUS
93. POTASSIUM
94. CALCIUM
95. MAGNESIUM
96. SULPHUR
97. MICRO NUTRIENT IN GENERAL-TRACE OR MINOR ELEMENTS
98. IRON
99. BORON
100. ZINC



____________________________________
101. MANGANESE
102. SODIUM
103. CHLORINE
104. COPPER
105. COBALT
106. MOLYBDENUM
107. THE CARBON AND NITROGEN CYCLE
108. CARBON CYCLE
109. NITROGEN CYCLE
110. AMMONIUM SALT
111. NITROGEN FIXATION
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS


125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION

168. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
169. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
170. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
171. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
172. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
173. CROP PRODUCTION
174. MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
175. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
176. OIL PALM
177. USES OF PALM OIL
178. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
179. COCOA






180. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
181. HOLING AND LINING
182. YAM
183. LAND PREPARATION
184. SEED RATE
185. SPACING
186. PLANTING DEPT
187. STORAGE OF YAM
188. STAKING
189. HARVESTING OF YAM
190. COW-PEA
191. JUTE
192. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
193. FORAGE GRASSES
194. SILAGE
195. PASTURE
196. TYPES OF PASTURE
197. COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
198. GRASSES
199. LEGUMES
200. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
202. HAY
203. SILAGE
204. FORESTRY
205. IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY
206. FOREST MANAGEMENT
207. FOREST REGULATION
208. DEFORESTATION
209. AFFORESTATION
210. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
211. MAIZE SMUT
212. RICE BLAST
213. MAIZE RUST
214. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
215. COW-PEA MOSAIC
216. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
217. COFFEE RUST
218. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
219. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
220. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
221. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
222. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
223. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
224. PESTSOF CROPS
225. STEM BORERS
226. ARMY WORM
227. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
228. APHIDS
229. WHITE FLY
230. SEED BUGS
231. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
232. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
233. GREEN SPIDER MITE
234. COTTON STAINER
235. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
236. GRASSHOPPER
237. THRIPS
238. LEAF ROLLER
239. BEAN BEETLE
240. RICE WEEVILS
241. RATS
242. SQUIRREL
243. GRASS-CUTTER
244. BIRDS SUCH AS WEAVER BIRD
245. PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
246. CROP IMPROVEMENT
247. AIMS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
248. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
249. METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
250. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
251. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
252. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
253. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
254. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF POULTRY BIRDS
255. THE GIZZARD
256. RUMINANT ANIMALS
257. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONO-GASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMALS
258. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
259. COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
260. THE NEURONS
261. A SYNAPSE ACTION
262. IMPULSE

263. REFLEX ACTION
264. VOLUNTARY ACTION
265. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
266. THE BRAIN
267. PARTS OF THE BRAIN THE SPINAL CORD
268. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
269. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
270. MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
271. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
272. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
273. THE HEART
274. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
275. THE TRACHEA
276. INSPIRATION
277. THE EXPIRATION
278. THE DIAPHRAGM
279. REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS
280. HEAT PERIODS
281. OESTROUS CYCLE
282. MATING
283. GESTATION PERIOD
284. PARTURITION
285. MAMMARY GLAND
286. LACTATION
287. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
288. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
289. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
290. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
291. POULTRY
292. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
293. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
294. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
295. SEMI-INTENSIVE
296. EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
297. PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
298. POULTRY SANITATION
299. ANIMAL NUTRITION
300. RATION
301. CONCENTRATE
302. ROUGHAGE
303. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
304. CARBOHYDRATES
305. PROTEIN
306. FATS
307. MINERALS
308. VITAMINS
309. TYPES OF DIETS
310. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
311. LAYER DIETS
312. BALANCED DIETS
313. LACTATION DIETS
314. MALNUTRITION
315. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
316. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
317. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
318. VIRAL DISEASES
319. RINDER PESTS
320. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
321. BACTERIA DISEASES
322. ANTHRAX
323. BRUCELLOSIS
324. TUBERCULOSIS
325. FUNGAL DISEASES
326. ASPERGILOSIS
327. RING WORM
328. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
329. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
330. COCCIDIOSIS
331. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
332. ENDO PARASITES
333. TAPE WORM
334. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
335. LIVER FLUKE
336. ECTO PARASITES
337. TICK
338. LICE
339. MITES
340. FISH FARMING
341. IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING
342. ESTABLISHMENT OF FISH PONDS
343. HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OF FISH
344. ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
345. PROCESSES OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
346. GENETIC INTRODUCTION(MIGRATION)
347. SYSTEMS OF BREEDING
348. INBREEDING






349. OUT-BREEDING
350. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
351.




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