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TYPES OF SOIL AND THEIR PROPERTIES





SOIL,

MAJOR TYPES OF SOIL AND THEIR PROPERTIES

Soil Soil is formed as a result of the breaking down of parent rocks. The major types of soil are classified according to the sizes of their particle/texture. The following are the major types of soil


1. Sandy soil:
this type of soil has larger fraction than the other types of soil.
It is called light soil sometimes due to the ease of cultivation. The particles are loosely held together and in sizes of 0.2mm to 2mm. Sandy soil has large pores between the particles.






2. CLAYEY SOIL:
this type of soil sticky in nature and has more than 25% of the soil mixture as clay. It very fine texture below 00.2mm in diameter. Highly plastic when moist, not good for crop cultivation due its sticky nature. It can retain lots of water.
It can easily be molded into shapes.
Clay soil becomes hard when dry. Clay
soil is poorly aerated. It is very smooth when felt with the hand. This type of soil is mainly good for the construction of fish pond.
It has high cation exchange capacity. It has very high specific surface area. Used for brick making and ceramic wares


3. LOAMY SOIL:
this type of soil is a mixture of sand and clay combination in adequate proportion. This type of soil is the best type of soil for crop production.
It contains a high amount of amount of organic matters.
It is fairly smooth and slightly elastic. It is well drained and aerated.


SOIL TEXTURE
Soil texture simply means the relative proportion of particles of different sizes present in a given soil sample. Each of the various sizes is called a fraction.

IMPORTANCE OF SOIL TEXTURE
Soil texture determines the type of soil found in an area. Texture influences the movement of water and air in the soil, including root penetration and workability.



SOIL STRUCTURE




regates. It shows the physical appearance of the soil as the particles are arranged.
Soil structure is brought about by the action of binding and cementing agents in the soil.
It may be stable or unstable depending on the cementing agent.
Changes occur in structure of soil as a result of the activities of the farmers during land preparation conservation, such as liming, manuring and others.

TYPES OF SOIL STRUCTURE
1. Platy 2. Prismatic 3. Spheroidal 4. Blocky structure

IMPORTANCE OF SOIL STRUCTURE
Soil structure is important because it influences the characteristics of the soil in terms of heat transfer, aeration, water movement, root penetration and workability of the soil.
It also affects the rate or degree of soil erosion.


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1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
1134.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER


69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

STUDY QUESTIONS

1. (a) name the three types of rock and give two examples of each (b) Describe briefly the formation of each 2. (a) what is weathering of rocks? (b) List the processes involved in rock weathering. 3. List the importance of good soil. 4. List the different types of soil and their characteristics

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