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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

FISHING TOOLS AND METHODS


Methods of Fishing

There are different methods used to catch fish from the water. These methods include

(a)

Use of nets:

Nets are made of nylon and are used for fishing both in large and small bodies of water. Net fishing is very efficient because many fishes can be caught at a time with a net.

There are different forms of net used for fishing. These are:


(i) The cast or throw nets
(ii) The gill nets
(iii) The lift nets
(iv) The hand net or scoop net.


(b)

Use of hooks:

A hook is made of metal rod which is curved at the tip.

Fishing hooks are of two kinds:


(i) The pole and line hook: This consists of a hook to which a twine is tied, which 'in turn, is tied to a long pole or stick. A weight or float (could be a small stone or metal nut) is tied to the rope to enable the hook go down the water. Fish is attracted to the hook by a bait (e.g. earth worm) attached to it. When a fish attempts to eat the bait, ils mouth is hu to the hook and the fisher quickly throws oul the honk the water to remove the fish. The method is time and labour consuming. Only one fish can be caught with this method at a time.

(ii) Long line hook: This consists of several hooks tied to a long line. The whole line is then tied across the course of the stream. Baits are attached to each hook. This can be left for a long time, while checking to see if any of the hooks has caught a fish as well as to replace the baits. Many fishes can be caught at a time with this method.
(c) 
Use of baskets: Baskets are mainly used in fish pond. They are tlhjp.f.'.i'il through the water to catch the fishes in it. Baskets are U'.i-d lor periodic harvesting by selecting only large fishes from tin- entire catch and throwing back the under-sized ones into the \\ iilcr. Many fishes can be caught with baskets at a time.
(d) Use of fish traps: These are woven materials usually with fanes, rid, ropes or wires. They are designed in different shapes and sizes. When placed in water, fishes are attracted into them by baits placed inside. When the fishes enter, they cannot come out. Hand net Cast net Drag net Fishing trap Figure 3.9.13: Fishing nets and trap.


(e) Use of spear or harpoon: This is used for large fishes like the shark. It is not however a very common method these








(f) Drainage: This is common in ponds or shallow streams which can be blocked to drain away water. The fishes are then easily. It is used for total harvesting in ponds. 

(g) Use of fishing trawlers, boats or canoes: These are means of transportation in water. They enable the fishermen to go into the water from which they can cast nets or set out hooks to catch fishes 

2.

Bad Fishing Methods

The following are considered bad "methods of fishing and should not be used:

1.

Use of poisons

, or chemicals such as gamalin 20.

2.

Electric stunning

, that is, passing electric current into I lie \v»t(r to stun or electrocute the fishes before they are picked.

3.

Processing and Preservation of Fishes


The following are ways of processing and preserving fishes:



(a) Smoking: Fishes are smoked by putting them over a fire and covering them on top. 

(b) Drying: This can be done by using fire or sun. Drying helps to reduce the water content in the fish and it can preserve the fish for a very long time.

(c) Canning: Fishes are processed and canned for export. This method .provides a long lasting means of fish preservation. Examples of canned fishes are sardine, Geisha, Queen of the Coast.

(d) Salting: Fish can be preserved by.rubbing salt on the body. It keeps the fish for a short time unless it is followed in drying.








(e) Chilling or freezing: Fish can be preserved in fridges, deep freezers and cold rooms. This method helps to keep fishes for a long time provided there is constant power supply.

(f) Icing: This is done by putting blocks of ice round fishes usually in coolers. The fishes can be transported with this method and can last so long as the ice remains. other methods include steaming, cooking, frying and roasting. 9.7 Factor to consider sitting a fish pond The following .factors should be taken into consideration before sitting a fish pond in any environment.


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE






34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER


73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL

112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION

133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION










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