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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

CAREERS IN AGRICULTURE


CAREERS/OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURE Objectives: Students should be able to: 1. Enumerate the various job opportunities or careers in agriculture. 2. Give the advantages of choosing farming as a career. Agriculture is made up of several areas which provide careers or occupations for many people.

Agriculture is both academic and vocational. The National Curriculum on Education (Revised 1981) has made it possible for every secondary school student to study agriculture, being a core subject at the Junior School and one of the compulsory vocational subjects at the Senio 13.1 Areas of Specialization in Agriculture The following are the different areas.which one can specialize in the study of agriculture: 1. Soil Science This deals with the study of the soil. It has to do with knowing the nature and types or classes of the soil, how to prepare the soil for crop production and managing the soil in a way that will enhance high yield of crops. A person that studied soil science is called soil scientist.









2. Animal Science This is the study of farm animals. Farm animals are also called livestock. The rearing of livestock or farm animals is referred tu as animal husbandry, The animal scientist is the person who studied the different kinds of farm animals, how they grow and reproduce, their food requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity. 3. Crop Science/Agronomy This area deals with the study of crops, it is concerned with knowing the different kinds of crops and their varieties, the of cultivating them, what they require to grow and produce This area is closely connected with soil science hence universities prefer to use the term agronomy to include soil science and crop science. The agronomist is one who is specialised in crop science. 4. Agricultural Education This is the study and teaching of agriculture in schools. People who teach agricultural science in schools and colleges are called Agricultural Educators or Agricultural Science Teachers. In the universities or other higher institutions, they are called Agricultural Lecturers.

5. Agricultural Extension This is a very important aspect of agriculture, because the development of sound agricultural practices depends on a good extension service. It is mainly concerned with passing information on improved farming techniques to farmers. The farmers' problems are also carried through extension service to research stations for solutions. The people who are trained to carry out agricultural extension service are called Agricultural Extension Officers or agents.

6. Agricultural Economics Agriculture is a business. .This means that it must be run in a way that profit will always come from it.

Agricultural Economics is therefore concerned with the study of how agriculture can be run so that it will be a profitable business. Agricultural Economics enables the farmer to know what to produce, with what to produce, how to produce, and what to do with the farm produce and finally what is the profit. A specialist in this area of agriculture is called Agricultural Economist. iduce. their food reproduce, ineir loou requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity.
1. Horticulture This deals with the science and art of growing: (a)fruit (pomology) (b) Vegetables (Olericulture) (c) Ornainental plants or flowers (Floriculture). A person that specialises in horticulture is called Horticulturist.

8. Forestry This is that branch of agriculture that deals with the control and management of forests and forest resources. A forest represents an area of land which is mainly covered_ with trees along with other plant species. The forestry officer is one who specialises in forest management.
9. Fishery The rearing of fishes and other aquatic organisms in a body of water is termed fishery. Fishery as a course/subject in agriculture studies the different kinds of fishes and other aquatic organisms, how they are reared, captured, preserved and used. Fishery matters are handled by fishery officers, trained in fishery.
10. Veterinary Medicine This is the area that studies the diseases and pests -of farm animals. The veterinarian is one who helps in vaccinating farm animals agamst diseases and treat them when they are sick. They are often called Veterinary doctors. 11. Agricultural Engineering This is concerned with the study of farm machineries and their uses. It also includes the maintenance of those machines and implements used on the farm, as well as construction, use and maintenance of farm structures and buildings. A specialist in this area is called Agricultural Engineer. Other areas include Agricultural Journalism, Agricultural Biology, General Agriculture, Agricultural Biochemistry and Nutrition, etc,


13.2Courses in agriculture available in Nigerian Higher Institutions ' Agriculture can be studied in any of the following levels of institution: 304 1. Schools of Agriculture and polytechnies These offer a two-year course leading to the award of the national Diploma (N.D.) some offer a further two-year couse leading to the award of Higher National Diploma (H.N.D). 2. Colleges of Education These institutions train agricultural science teachers for a three year duration after which they are awarded the Nigeria Certificate of Education (N.C.E.).







Universities Different universities have their faculties of agriculture when different courses are offered leading to the award of any of the following: (a) B.Sc ( Agric) (b) B. Agric~ (c) B.Ed(Agric) To study Agriculture in higher schools in Nigeria, it is advisable to offer and have credit passes, at the senior school certificate examination, Agricultural Science, Biology, Chemistry, English and Mathematics. Other relevant subjects are Physics, Economics and Geography. Craduates from the different schools and different courses may become any of the following: (1) Agricultural Officers in Ministries of Agriculture. (2) Research Officers in Research Stations. (3) Teachers in secondary schools. (4) Teachers/Lecturers in -higher institutions. (5) Managers in commercial farms. (6) Agricultural loans officers in Banks , (7) Veterinary doctors. (8) Public Relations Officers in large Agro-industries or farms. (9) Agricultural journalists (10) Agricultural businessmen f (11) Forestry officers. . (12) Fishery officers. It has been mentioned earlier in this unit that agriculture is both academic and vocational. What has been discussed above is the academic and vocational aspect of agriculture. On the vocational side, a person who studied agriculture' can engage in any of the following vocations or occupations: a) Arable crops production: This is concerned with the cultivation of food crops such as cereals, tubers, plantains* and banana, etc. (b)Cash crops production: This includes the cultivation of crops such as cotton, oil palm, rubber, cocoa, etc. (c) Vegetables production (d) Production of ornamental plants and landscape development and beautification. (e) Livestock production: This includes the rearing of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits or poultry. . (g) Fishery., (h) Agricultural business (trading on farm produce and farm equipment or inputs). 13.3 Advantages of choosing farming as a career Many people often think that agriculture means farming. T his is not entirely true. As it has been seen in the preceding discussions, agriculture is academic, it is a business and it is a vocation or an occupation. Farming comes under vocation or occupation in agriculture. Agriculture is mainly concerned with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals on the farm. Farming therefore is an important component or sub-sector of agriculture because it is the source of food for mankind. AH other aspects of agriculture are geared towards improving farming and hence increasing available food for human consumption. Therefore, agriculture cam toe regarded as the mother of all professions, occupations or businesses. If agriculture flourishes, every other aspect of human endeavour will flourish, but if the land is allowed to lie fallow, every otherr thing is at a standstill. The following are some benefits that are derived from fannilng: 1. Provision of Food Farming provides the food we eat. A good farmer and his family are well fed. They are never hungry. They have access to varieties of food and usually in. their natural forms. This makes farmers and their families healthier and stronger than the non-farmers. 2. Job Opportunity Farming provides jobs for farmers and their families: In farming communities, no one is unemployed. 3 Income Through farming, farmers get money which they use for other purposes, like provision of shelter, children's education, health care, etc. Farmers arc rich because they spend less money on food since they produce most of the food they eat by themselves. 4. Self-Satisfaction There is joy and satisfaction in seeing and utilizing what one" produces. The psychological satisfaction a farmer has during harvest time cannot be <|ii;in tided. 5. Source of Satisfaction Farming activities afford farmers sources of exercising themselves. The farmer can never be idle any time of the year. He uses his brain as well as his hands often. This helps him to overcome emotional stress and build good body physique. Farmers fall sick less often, they are not hypertensive or obesed. They live longer than other average non-farmers. 6. Contribution to National Development The farmer is the key person in the life and economy of any country. Through the provision of food which sustains life, raw materials for industries and foreign exchange earnings, the farmer helps to build the nation and save it from hunger and diseases.




(a) List five different courses in Agriculture which one can study in the university in Nigeria (a) What possible jobs would one engage in after completing each course listed 2. State four benefits that could be derived from choosing farming as a career 3. List five possible vocations one could engage in after studying agriculture. . . 4. Write short notes on the following: a. Agricultural education b. Agricultural extension c. Agricultural economics d. Agricultural engineering


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1134.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
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45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER


69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES