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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS MODE OF NUTRITION



CARNIVOROUS NUTRITION OR INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS MODE OF NUTRITION

Understanding Carnivorous plants
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods. Carnivorous plants have adapted to grow in places where the soil is thin or poor in nutrients, especially nitrogen, such as acidic bogs. Charles Darwin wrote Insectivorous Plants, the first well-known treatise on carnivorous plants, in 1875.

True carnivore

is thought to have evolved independently nine times in five different orders of flowering plants and is represented by more than a dozen genera. This classification includes at least 583 species that attract, trap, and kill prey, absorbing the resulting available nutrients.

300 proto-carnivorous plant species in several genera show some but not all of these characteristics.


Carnivorous or insectivorous plants are equipped with devices for trapping, digesting and absorbing nutritive compounds from the body of insects and other small organisms. They have green leaves to help them carry out photosynthesis or photosynthetic nutrition


Carnivorous plants

usually grow in place with little nitrogenous salts and they then use insects and other smaller animals as their source of nitrogen
Examples of carnivorous or insectivorous plants are
i.

SUNDEW (DROSERA)

The Drosera plant possesses leaves capable of forming an organ to trap and digest insects and it is an example of a carnivorous plant. The upper surface of the leaves has a number of glandular hairs or tentacles. The leaf surface is sticky as a result of digestive gland in the gland.
The ends of the tentacles secretes enzymes capable of digesting insects caught.
The presence of an insect on the leaf stimulates the leaf to fold over and turn all the tentacles inwards. The insect caught get enmeshed. Secretions from the glands then pour out and cover the insect. The explanation above shows the Sundew as a carnivorous plant
ii.

BLADDERWORT (UTRACULARIA)












The Bladderwort is an aquatic carnivorous plant without the possession of roots. Some of the leaves are modified to form hair-like bladders. Each bladder has a trap door hinged on only one edge, so that it can only open inward and tend to remain closed.
In these arrangement, a trapped insect finds it difficult to escape. The captured insect eventually dies of starvation and its nutrients are then absorbed by the plant. This characteristics of Bladderwort makes it a carnivorous plant

iii.

PITCHER-PLANT OF THE NEPENTHES AND SARRACENA


The pitcher is a type of carnivorous plant and it is formed from the modified leaf while the whole leaf of the Sarracena is modified into the Pitcher plant, only the terminal leaf of Nepenthes forms the Pitcher plant
The Nepenthes as a carnivorous plant contains watery fluids secreted by glands in the lower half. The wall of the rest Pitcher above these secretion is smooth, being covered by little waxy scales.
The Pitcher as a carnivorous plant has a lid. Once at the lid, the insect falls over the rim of the Pitcher into the fluid at the bottom.
Enzymes secreted by the Pitcher aids the digestion after which the required nutrients are absorbed by the plant.

Other examples of carnivorous plants are

i. Venus-fly trap also known as Dionaea muscipula
ii. The Butterwort also called Pinguicula







Plants belonging to the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous, using specialized pitfall traps called "pitchers" that attract, capture, and digest insects as a primary source of nutrients. We have used RNA sequencing to generate a cDNA library from the Nepenthes pitchers and applied it to mass spectrometry-based identification of the enzymes secreted into the pitcher fluid using a nonspecific digestion strategy superior to trypsin in this application. This first complete catalog of the pitcher fluid subproteome includes enzymes across a variety of functional classes. The most abundant proteins present in the secreted fluid are proteases, nucleases, peroxidases, chitinases, a phosphatase, and a glucanase. Nitrogen recovery involves a particularly rich complement of proteases. In addition to the two expected aspartic proteases, we discovered three novel nepenthensins, two prolyl endopeptidases that we name neprosins, and a putative serine carboxypeptidase. Additional proteins identified are relevant to pathogen-defense and secretion mechanisms. The full complement of acid-stable enzymes discovered in this study suggests that carnivory in the genus Nepenthes can be sustained by plant-based mechanisms alone and does not absolutely require bacterial symbiosis.




Here are links to previous articles and post that are related to insectivorous or carnivorous nutrition










1. Modes of nutrition in animals
2. Saprophytic nutrition
3. Parasitic nutrition
4. Forages and farm animal nutrition
5. Water as a food substance
6. Carnivorous nutrition in plants
7. Endoparasites and Ectoparasites feeding modes
8. Holozoic mode of nutrition
9. Heterotrophic mode of nutrition
10. Autotrophic nutrition
11. Chemosynthetic nutrition
12. Importance of balance diet

13. What is Kwashiokor?
14. How to test for food
15. Vitamin deficiency symptoms
16. Mineral deficiency symptoms
17. Types of carbohydrates
18. Food substances
19. Classification of food substances
20. feeding mechanisms in holozoic organisms



Important topics related to the above article
1. Recognizing living things
2. Biology as an enquiry in science
3. Branches of biology
4. Processes of methods of science
5. Usefulness of science
6. Living and non-living things
7. Characteristics of living things
8. Differences between plants and animals
9. Organization of life
10. Complexity of organization in higher organisms
11. Kingdom monera
12. Kingdom Protista
13. Kingdom fungi
14. Kingdom Plantae
15. Kingdom Animalia
16. Cell as a living unit of an organism
17. Form in which living cells exist
18. Structures of plants and animal cells and functions of their components
19. Similarity and differences between plant and animal cell
20. Diffusion
21. Osmosis
22. Plasmolysis
23. Haemolysis
24. Turgidity
25. Faccidity
26. Nutrition
27. Feeding
28. Cellular respiration
29. Excretion
30. Growth
31. Cell reaction to its environment
types vertebrae and the vertebral column
32. Movement and responses
33. Reproduction
34. Skeleton
35. Type of skeleton
36. Bones of axial and appendicular skeleton
37. Joint
38. Functions of skeleton in man
39. Supporting tissues in plants
40. Mechanisms of supports in plants
41. Uses of fibres to plants
42. Functions of supporting tissues in plants
43. test for Food substances
44. Balanced diet and kwashiokor
food tests
45. Modes of nutrition
46. Feeding mechanisms in holozoic organisms
maintenance of teeth gum
47. Mammalian teeth
48. Dentition
49. Digestive enzymes
50. Meaning of ecology
causes of germs and diseases in humans
51. Local biotic communities or biomes in Nigeria
52. Major biomes of the world
53. Population studies
54. Ecological factors



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE






29. LAND AND ITS USES
30. AGRICULTURAL LANDS
31. NON-AGRICULTURAL LANDS
32. LAND USE POLICIES
33. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER









69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL

112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS





125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION

168. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
169. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
170. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
171. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
172. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
173. CROP PRODUCTION
174. MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
175. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
176. OIL PALM
177. USES OF PALM OIL
178. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
179. COCOA







Plants belonging to the genus Nepenthes are carnivorous, using specialized pitfall traps called "pitchers" that attract, capture, and digest insects as a primary source of nutrients. We have used RNA sequencing to generate a cDNA library from the Nepenthes pitchers and applied it to mass spectrometry-based identification of the enzymes secreted into the pitcher fluid using a nonspecific digestion strategy superior to trypsin in this application. This first complete catalog of the pitcher fluid subproteome includes enzymes across a variety of functional classes. The most abundant proteins present in the secreted fluid are proteases, nucleases, peroxidases, chitinases, a phosphatase, and a glucanase. Nitrogen recovery involves a particularly rich complement of proteases. In addition to the two expected aspartic proteases, we discovered three novel nepenthensins, two prolyl endopeptidases that we name neprosins, and a putative serine carboxypeptidase. Additional proteins identified are relevant to pathogen-defense and secretion mechanisms. The full complement of acid-stable enzymes discovered in this study suggests that carnivory in the genus Nepenthes can be sustained by plant-based mechanisms alone and does not absolutely require bacterial symbiosis.