popular post of all time

new posts

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS, DISTRIBUTION AND USES OF CROPS



CLASSIFICATION, DISTRIBUTION AND USES OF CROP


1. Classify Crop according to:
(i) Economic uses (ii) The life cycle
(iii) Tillage and cultivation practices
(iv) Number of cotyledons.

YOU CAN CHECK OUT MOST OUR RELATED ARTICLES IN THE MIDDLE OF THIS POST

2. Explain the meaning of the terms annuals, biennials, perennials, arable and non-arable crops
3. List the geographical distribution of crops in Nigeria
4. List the factors responsible for the pattern of crop distribution 5. State the uses of crop and their by-products. CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS



The Food Crops are plants grown primarily for the harvesting of any part which is used by people as food or processed into food product. The Non-food Crops are mainly cash crops. These are plants grown for the production of non-food products such as fiber, fodder, alcohol and tobacco. The Staple Crops are food crops. These are regularly consumed in a traditional diet and from which people obtain a major proportion of their energy and nutrient requirements. Examples of other staple crops: wheat and millet. The Cereal or Grain Crops are mainly annual, herbaceous plants belonging to the grass family which are grown for their seeds or grains. Examples: corn, millet, rice, sorghum, wheat.

Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agriculture
31. CROP HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
32. PESTS AND DISEASE OF MAIZE- ZEA MAYS







33. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
34. OIL PALM
35. USES OF PALM OIL
36. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
37. COCOA
38.
39. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
HOLING AND LINING




here is a special article on weeds and their botanical names

here is my post on the botanical names of crop

what is a crop?

A crop is a plant that is grown by man in order to harvest it at some point. The crops grown by the farmer can be classified as follows;
1. According economic uses
2. According to life cycle
3. According to cultivation or tillage practices

YOU CAN CHECK OUT THIS ARTICLE ON WEED CONTROL METHODS
CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO ECONOMIC USES. READ HERE

1.

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO ECONOMIC PURPOSE


Crops in this category are classified or grouped according to the main food substances existing in them. They are as follows.
(i) Legumes
(ii) cereal
(iii) roots and tubers
(iv) vegetables
(v) fruits
(vi) beverages
(vii) oil
(viii) Latex
(ix) Fibres
(x) Spices
(xi) Drugs
xii) Forage Crops
(xiii) Nuts

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

1.

Legumes:

these are crops that have nodules or swellings in their roots. They are capable of converting the Nitrogen of the air into plant/crop food. Such crops are very rich in protein. Examples of legumes are, soya beans, cowpea, groundnut, pigeon pea and mucuna.

2.

Cereals:

these are crops that are grown because of their seeds which is used as food by man. Such crops are very rich in carbohydrate. Examples of Cereal Crops are Rice, Maize, Guinea corn (sorghum), Millet and Wheat.

3.

Roots and Tubers:

these are crops that store food in their roots. They are very rich in carbohydrate. They form the staple food for most people in Nigeria and sub-Sahara Africa. Examples are Cassava, potato, yam and Carrot.

4.
Vegetables:
these are crops whose leaves and fruits are used as vegetables
in foods. Such crops are rich in vitamins needed by the body. Examples are tomato, onion, fluted pumpkin, okra, lettuce, cabbage and green vegetable.

5.
Fruit crops
these are crops that are grown for their fruits which supply vitamin and sugars to the body. Examples are mango, pineapple, orange, pawpaw, banana, cashew etc


READ MY ARTICLE ON BOTANICAL NAMES OF CROPS HERE

6.
Beverage crops:
A beverage crop is the one that produces a potable beverage other than water. It can also include crops that produce starch (all cereals) or sugar (sugarcane, sugar beet), which can be used for making a drink or a beverage.







Beverage is a potable drink other than water. The word beverage was COINED from the old French word boivre or ‘boire’ that means a drink. There are two types of beverages: non-alcoholic and alcoholic. Common non-alcoholic beverages include coffee, tea, milk, coke, sodas, etc. Alcoholic beverages include beers, wine, whiskey, and other hard drinks.

The common non-alcoholic beverage crops are coffee, tea, sugarcane, sugar beet, coconut, lemon grass, etc.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
2. DISEASES
3. 52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS


CHECK OUT MY POST ON TILLAGE SYSTEMS HERE

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

8.

Latex crops:

this type crop produces milky sap or fluid called latex. Example is Rubber

9.

Fibre crops:

these are crops that are used in making ropes, rugs, threads and other textile materials. Examples are cotton, jute, kenaf and sisal.• Cotton
• Malvaceae
• Gossypium spp.
- Sea-Island cotton,






• Egyptian cotton
• Gossypium barbadense
- Upland cotton,
• bulak,
• gapas, algodon
- Tree cotton
- Levant cotton
Bast Fibers
• Flax Linaceae
• Hemp, marijuana
• Jute Malvaceae
• Ramie
Sunn hemp
• Kenaf
• China Jute, Indian Mallow
• Roselle, Rama
• Aramina,
• Cadillo,
• Calut-calutan
• Abaca, Manila Hemp
• Agaves
• Mauritius Hemp, green aloe,
New Zealand Flax,
• Bowstring Hemp
• S. thyrsiflora
• S. zelanica
• Coconut
• Pineapple
• Floja
• Caro
for a comprehensive review and details of fibre crops please go here
10.

Spice crops:

these are crops that are used to flavor food. Examples are ginger, onion thyme and pepper.

11.

Drug and stimulant crops:

these are crops that produce substances or materials used for chemical purposes. Examples are coca plant, kola, lime , Indian hemp and dongoyaro.
12. Forage crops: these are crops grown for feeding farm animals. Forage crops include Guinea grass, Elephant grass, Gamba grass centrocima and calopogonium.
13.

Ornamental crops:

these are crops which are grown for their aesthetic values. They help to protect building against wind damages. They are also used for environmental beautification.
Example are Hibiscus, carpet grass etc.

3.

DESCRIPTIVE CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS

The descriptive classification of crops is based on five criterions: a) Mode of Reproduction, b) Mode of Pollination, c) Life Span, d) Growth Habit and e) Leaf Retention. The method adopted according to the Mode of Reproduction, has classified the crops into two major divisions as sexual and asexual reproducing plants. The Sexual category of plants are developed from a seed or spore after undergoing union of male and female gametes. The typical examples include palms and ferns. The Asexual category of plants undergo reproduction by any vegetative means without the union of the sexual gametes or by apomixis.

2.

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO THEIR LIFE CYCLE

According to Life Span, crops are classified into annuals, biennial and perennial categories. The Annuals are plants which live within a short period of time, for a few weeks or months, perpetuated by seed, and which die soon after producing seeds. Examples include: rice, corn, cowpea, etc. The Biennials are plants which requires two growing seasons to complete its life cycle, the first for vegetative growth and accumulation of food reserves, and the second for the production of reproductive parts. Examples include: onion, cabbage, carrot, celery,
The Perennials include, a plant that lives indefinitely, including all trees and shrubs and many herbaceous plants with underground stems (e.g. corm, rhizome, tuber) like banana and clump-forming grasses. The Perennial plants continue growing and produce seeds year after year, either from a single plant or, in herbaceous plants, from succeeding regrowth. Based on Growth Habit crops classified into Herbs, Vines, Lianas, Shrubs and Trees.
On the bases of life cycle, crops are grouped into three sets.
These are:
(a) Annual Crops
(b) Biennial Crops
(c) Perennial Crops


YOU CAN ALSO READ ABOUT THE CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS IN THIS POST
(a)

Annual Crops:

These are crops that complete their life cycle in one year or planting season. The crops are planted, grow and are harvested or will die within one year. This group of crops are Maize, Rice, Millet, Yam, Tomato, Millet and Guinea Corn

(b)
Biennial Crops:
these are crops that complete their life cycle in two years. They use the first year to grow and store food. Reproduction and maturity takes place in the second year. Examples are pineapple, cocoyam, plantain, banana and sugar beet.

(c)
Perennial Crops:
this group of crop takes more than two years to their life cycle. They are mainly tree crops. They include Rubber, Cocoa, Oil Palm and Orange.

3.

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS BASED ON THEIR TILLAGE PRACTICES


TILLAGE OR CULTIVATION PRACTICES HERE

On the bases of tillage practices, crops are classified into:

(a) arable crops
(b) Non-arable crops



(a)
Arable crops:
these set of crops are also called food crops. Most of them are planted and harvested within one year. The cultivation of arable crops most cases involve total tillage of the soil before planting. The crops includes maize, rice, millet, cassava and guinea corn

(b)
Non-arable crop:
these sets of crops most often does not require total tillage of the ground except the very spot where the plant will be established. They are orange, guava, oil palm, cashew, cocoa, etc. they are often called cash crops.

Cultivation of crops according to the number of seed-leaf or cotyledon Crops can be classified according to the number of seed leaf or cotyledon.

They are
(a) Monocotyledonous crops
(b) Dicotyledonous crops

(a)
Monocotyledonous crops:
these are crops that have only one seed leaf or cotyledon. Examples are millet, rice, maize and oil palm.

(b)

Dicotyledonous crops:


these are crops that have two seed leaves or cotyledon. Examples are cow-pea, melon, mango, pumpkin and soya beans.
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science



Swamp rice can also be grown in the area.


2. Rain forest This occurs in the Southern part of Nigeria lying above the mangrove and fresh water Swamp Forest. The annual rainfall of this one is about 150 cm to 200 cm.


This region consists of tall woody trees and strong undergrowth. Examples of trees found here include iroko, obeche, opepe, mahogany, afara, etc.

There is a high degree of farming activity in this region. Crops commonly grown are yam, coco yam, cassava, maize, rice, plantain, Cocoa, rubber, oil palm, kola, mango, citrus, etc.


Animals include dwarf goat, sheep, pigs, cattle and poultry. Fish ponds are also kept. Guinea savanna This zone is cutting deep into the rain forest due to continued cultivation.







Such areas are now referred to as derived savanna. The Guinea Savanna area is made up of tall strong grasses Interspersed with trees of moderate heights. Annual rainfall is about 100cm to 150cm.

This zone is the largest vegetation zone in Nigeria. It is an area of intensive agricultural activity. Crops grown include all cereals, legumes such as cow-peas and groundnuts, cotton, yam,
cassava and potatoes Livestock include
cattle, goat,

sheep,
poultry and others.


4. Sudan savanna This zone is covered with more grasses and short scattered trees and has an annual rainfall of 50 cm to 75 cm. Agricultural activity in this area centres mainly on cattle, sheep and goat rearing. Poultry is also kept while donkeys, camels and horses are equally reared.


HERE IS MY POST ON FORESTRY AND RESERVES

Crops grown are mainly sugar cane, millet and sorghum.

Vegetables particularly carrot and tomatoes
are grown along river beds, streams and in areas with irrigation facilities.


5. Sahel savanna This occupies the extreme north-east of Nigeria with an annual rainfall of about 15 cm to 50 cm.


It is characterized by feathery grasses and highly scattered spiny shrubs (thorn bushes).

Animals are mostly reared here during the rainy season while drought' resistant crops like dwarf sorghum and millet are cultivated.r

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF CROPS

1. WATER
2. SUN SHINE
3. TYPE OF SOIL AND
4. ACTION OF MAN


Crops and their bye-products are used in the following ways:

1. They used as food by man.
2. Planks from timber are used for making shelters.
3. Clothing: son many of the clothing materials are made from crop material such as cotton
4. Used for feeding farm animals
5. For the control of erosion such as planting of cover crops
6. For making books and papers
7. For making furniture
8. Used for the production of medicine or drugs
9. Some crop serves as beverage
10. Some dead crop materials are used as fuel
11. Used for making compost manure
12. Some are used in the industries for the production of gums, rubber wares and perfume


AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science








HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

No comments:

Post a Comment

please your comments is highly welcomed and we will get back you as soon as possible, and please help us share if you like what you read. thank you