CLASSIFICATION, DISTRIBUTION AND USES OF CROPS




CLASSIFICATION, DISTRIBUTION AND USES OF CROP


1. Classify Crop according to:
(i) Economic uses (ii) The life cycle
(iii) Tillage and cultivation practices
(iv) Number of cotyledons.


2. Explain the meaning of the terms annuals, biennials, perennials, arable and non-arable crops
3. List the geographical distribution of crops in Nigeria
4. List the factors responsible for the pattern of distribution 5. State the uses of crop and their by-products. CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS



AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agriculture


here is a special article on weeds and their botanical names

here is my post on the botanical names of crop

what is a crop?

A crop is a plant that is grown by man in order to harvest it at some point. The crops grown by the farmer can be classified as follows;
1. According economic uses
2. According to life cycle
3. According to cultivation or tillage practices






YOU CAN CHECK OUT THIS ARTICLE ON WEED CONTROL METHODS



CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO ECONOMIC USES. READ HERE

1.

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO ECONOMIC PURPOSE


Crops in this category are classified or grouped according to the main food substances existing in them. They are as follows.
(i) Legumes
(ii) cereal
(iii) roots and tubers
(iv) vegetables
(v) fruits
(vi) beverages
(vii) oil
(viii) Latex
(ix) Fibres
(x) Spices
(xi) Drugs
xii) Forage Crops
(xiii) Nuts

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science





1.

Legumes:

these are crops that have nodules or swellings in their roots. They are capable of converting the Nitrogen of the air into plant/crop food. Such crops are very rich in protein. Examples of legumes are, soya beans, cowpea, groundnut, pigeon pea and mucuna.

2.

Cereals:

these are crops that are grown because of their seeds which is used as food by man. Such crops are very rich in carbohydrate. Examples of Cereal Crops are Rice, Maize, Guinea corn (sorghum), Millet and Wheat.

3.

Roots and Tubers:

these are crops that store food in their roots. They are very rich in carbohydrate. They form the staple food for most people in Nigeria and sub-Sahara Africa. Examples are Cassava, potato, yam and Carrot.

4.

Vegetables:

these are crops whose leaves and fruits are used as vegetables in foods. Such crops are rich in vitamins needed by the body. Examples are tomato, onion, fluted pumpkin, okra, lettuce, cabbage and green vegetable.

5.

Fruit crops:

these are crops that are grown for their fruits which supply vitamin and sugars to the body. Examples are mango, pineapple, orange, pawpaw, banana, cashew etc



READ MY ARTICLE ON BOTANICAL NAMES OF CROPS HERE


6.

Beverage crops:

A beverage crop is the one that produces a potable beverage other than water. It can also include crops that produce starch (all cereals) or sugar (sugarcane, sugar beet), which can be used for making a drink or a beverage.

Beverage is a potable drink other than water. The word beverage was COINED from the old French word boivre or ‘boire’ that means a drink. There are two types of beverages: non-alcoholic and alcoholic. Common non-alcoholic beverages include coffee, tea, milk, coke, sodas, etc. Alcoholic beverages include beers, wine, whiskey, and other hard drinks.

The common non-alcoholic beverage crops are coffee, tea, sugarcane, sugar beet, coconut, lemon grass, etc.

The common crops that are used in alcoholic drinks are:

barley (beers), sorghum (sorghum beer), rice (Sake in Japan), coconuts, palmira, and other palms (palm wine), grapes (grape wine), sugarcane & maize (alcohol), etc. In fact, any starch or a sugar crop can be used to prepare alcohols. Agave is used in Mexico to prepare a
these crops grown for use as beverage drink. Examples are cocoa, coffee and tea. 7. Oil crops: these refer to crops whose fruits or seeds are rich in oil. Such crops as oil palm, groundnut and coconut.

CHECK OUT MY POST ON TILLAGE SYSTEMS HERE

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science

8.

Latex crops:

this type crop produces milky sap or fluid called latex. Example is Rubber

9.

Fibre crops:

these are crops that are used in making ropes, rugs, threads and other textile materials. Examples are cotton, jute, kenaf and sisal.• Cotton
• Malvaceae
• Gossypium spp.
- Sea-Island cotton,
• Egyptian cotton
• Gossypium barbadense
- Upland cotton,
• bulak,
• gapas, algodon
- Tree cotton
- Levant cotton
Bast Fibers
• Flax Linaceae
• Hemp, marijuana
• Jute Malvaceae
• Ramie
Sunn hemp
• Kenaf
• China Jute, Indian Mallow
• Roselle, Rama
• Aramina,
• Cadillo,
• Calut-calutan
• Abaca, Manila Hemp
• Agaves
• Mauritius Hemp, green aloe,
New Zealand Flax,
• Bowstring Hemp
• S. thyrsiflora
• S. zelanica
• Coconut
• Pineapple
• Floja
• Caro
for a comprehensive review and details of fibre crops please go here
10.

Spice crops:

these are crops that are used to flavor food. Examples are ginger, onion thyme and pepper.





11.

Drug and stimulant crops:

these are crops that produce substances or materials used for chemical purposes. Examples are coca plant, kola, lime , Indian hemp and dongoyaro.
12. Forage crops: these are crops grown for feeding farm animals. Forage crops include Guinea grass, Elephant grass, Gamba grass centrocima and calopogonium.

13.

Ornamental crops:

these are crops which are grown for their aesthetic values. They help to protect building against wind damages. They are also used for environmental beautification.
Example are Hibiscus, carpet grass etc.


2.

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS ACCORDING TO THEIR LIFE CYCLE


On the bases of life cycle, crops are grouped into three sets.

These are:
(a) Annual Crops
(b) Biennial Crops
(c) Perennial Crops


YOU CAN ALSO READ ABOUT THE CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS IN THIS POST
(a)

Annual Crops:

These are crops that complete their life cycle in one year or planting season. The crops are planted, grow and are harvested or will die within one year. This group of crops are Maize, Rice, Millet, Yam, Tomato, Millet and Guinea Corn

(b)

Biennial Crops:

these are crops that complete their life cycle in two years. They use the first year to grow and store food. Reproduction and maturity takes place in the second year. Examples are pineapple, cocoyam, plantain, banana and sugar beet.

(c)

Perennial Crops:

this group of crop takes more than two years to their life cycle. They are mainly tree crops. They include Rubber, Cocoa, Oil Palm and Orange.

3.

CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS BASED ON THEIR TILLAGE PRACTICES


TILLAGE OR CULTIVATION PRACTICES HERE

On the bases of tillage practices, crops are classified into:

(a) arable crops
(b) Non-arable crops





(a)

Arable crops:

these set of crops are also called food crops. Most of them are planted and harvested within one year. The cultivation of arable crops most cases involve total tillage of the soil before planting. The crops includes maize, rice, millet, cassava and guinea corn

(b)

Non-arable crop:

these sets of crops most often does not require total tillage of the ground except the very spot where the plant will be established. They are orange, guava, oil palm, cashew, cocoa, etc. they are often called cash crops.

Cultivation of crops according to the number of seed-leaf or cotyledon Crops can be classified according to the number of seed leaf or cotyledon.

They are
(a) Monocotyledonous crops
(b) Dicotyledonous crops

(a)

Monocotyledonous crops:

these are crops that have only one seed leaf or cotyledon. Examples are millet, rice, maize and oil palm.

(b)

Dicotyledonous crops:


these are crops that have two seed leaves or cotyledon. Examples are cow-pea, melon, mango, pumpkin and soya beans.
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science


Vegetation zones of Nigeria



Map of Nigeria showing the different Vegetation Zones


KEY


Sahel Savanna


Sudan Savanna


Guinea Savanna


Rain Forest






Mangrove and Fresh Water Swamp Forest



1. Mangrove and fresh water swamp forest


This occupies the delta part of Nigeria with heavy rainfall of up to 200 cm and more per annum.

The major activities in this region include lumbering (felling of timbers) and fishing.


Swamp rice can also be grown in the area.


2. Rain forest This occurs in the Southern part of Nigeria lying above the mangrove and fresh water Swamp Forest. The annual rainfall of this one is about 150 cm to 200 cm.


This region consists of tall woody trees and strong undergrowth. Examples of trees found here include iroko, obeche, opepe, mahogany, afara, etc.


There is a high degree of farming activity in this region. Crops commonly grown are yam, coco yam, cassava, maize, rice, plantain, Cocoa, rubber, oil palm, kola, mango, citrus, etc.


Animals include dwarf goat, sheep, pigs, cattle and poultry. Fish ponds are also kept. Guinea savanna This zone is cutting deep into the rain forest due to continued cultivation.


Such areas are now referred to as derived savanna. The Guinea Savanna area is made up of tall strong grasses Interspersed with trees of moderate heights. Annual rainfall is about 100cm to 150cm.






This zone is the largest vegetation zone in Nigeria. It is an area of intensive agricultural activity. Crops grown include all cereals, legumes such as cow-peas and groundnuts, cotton, yam, cassava and potatoes Livestock include cattle, goat, sheep, poultry and others.


4. Sudan savanna This zone is covered with more grasses and short scattered trees and has an annual rainfall of 50 cm to 75 cm. Agricultural activity in this area centres mainly on cattle, sheep and goat rearing. Poultry is also kept while donkeys, camels and horses are equally reared.


HERE IS MY POST ON FORESTRY AND RESERVES

Crops grown are mainly sugar cane, millet and sorghum.

Vegetables particularly carrot and tomatoes are grown along river beds, streams and in areas with irrigation facilities.


5. Sahel savanna This occupies the extreme north-east of Nigeria with an annual rainfall of about 15 cm to 50 cm.


It is characterized by feathery grasses and highly scattered spiny shrubs (thorn bushes).

Animals are mostly reared here during the rainy season while drought' resistant crops like dwarf sorghum and millet are cultivated.r

FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF CROPS

1. WATER
2. SUN SHINE
3. TYPE OF SOIL AND
4. ACTION OF MAN


Crops and their bye-products are used in the following ways:

1. They used as food by man.
2. Planks from timber are used for making shelters.
3. Clothing: son many of the clothing materials are made from crop material such as cotton
4. Used for feeding farm animals
5. For the control of erosion such as planting of cover crops
6. For making books and papers
7. For making furniture
8. Used for the production of medicine or drugs
9. Some crop serves as beverage
10. Some dead crop materials are used as fuel
11. Used for making compost manure
12. Some are used in the industries for the production of gums, rubber wares and perfume


AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science



agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.






HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
75. SOIL WATER
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL LOAMY SOIL
83. SOIL TEXTURE
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
soil improvement techniques
90. MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149. PLOUGHS
142. FIELD MACHINES
157. PLANTERS
164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION




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