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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

FACTORS AFFECTING FARM STORAGE


7.3 Losses in Storage
The losses that occur in storage are caused by several factors
These factors can be grouped under:

1. Losses in the Field
(a) Unfavourable weather conditions: These include too much sun shine or rain high or low temperature, etc, Weather problems can be reduced by providing roofs over stored products in the field,
(b) Pests: These pests include insects, rodents and birds. Losses due to pests can be reduced by protecting stored products against insects and rodent through the use of solid materials that are insects and rodent-proof.
(c) Man: Thieves smay enter into the farm to remove stored products. Providing solid fence round the farm may reduce this problem
2. Losses in the store







(a) Improper drying: This leads to moulding of grains.
(b) Poor condition of store: Leakages on the roofs, cracks on the walls, poor ventilation and dampness can lead to loss of stored products.
(c) Insects (weevils) and rats: These destroy grains in store.
(d) Fire hazards: Fire outbreak destroys stored products such as vain tuber in the bam.
(e) Thieves: Thieves may break into store and remove the products therein

The problems enumerated above can
be reduced by drying.grains paly before storage, using well constructed storage structures fumigating store against insects. Rat poisons may be used to kill while solid doors and locks should be used to prevent thieves.

7.6 How to reduce storage losses
(i) Use good quality materials in the construction of storage structures or buildings.
(ii) Clean and disinfect stores before use.
(iii) Ensure that farm products are free from pests and disease organims before storage.
(iv) All storage containers such-as bags, pots, bottles and other should be dried and cleaned before they are used.
(v) Pests and disease outbreak in store should be controlled with appropriate chemicals.
7.5 Problems of storage
The following are the problems associated with the storage of farm produce
1. High of construction
Some of the methods of storing farming produce require high cost of construction and maintenance. Since most of our farmers are poor, they cannot adopt these methods, for example silo and cold loom storage.
2. The nature of produce
For some farm produce, storage is very difficult because of their high level of perish-ability. Examples are vegetables, fruits, and animal products.

3. Bulky crop products
Some c.rop products are bulky hence their storage becomes difficult. A lot of time and labour is spent in constructing the storage facilities that can accommodate them. Example is yarn tubers.
4. Effect
The nature of our tropical environment makes farm storage difficult. Too much sun causes excessive drying while too much rain or high humidity causes moulding and rottening.
5. The control of insect pests and rats
Insects such as the weevils cause serious damage to grains like maize, beans and rice. The activity of rats is a serious problem because they destroy stored products and storage materials.









7.6 Precautions to be taken before grains are stored
In the storage of grains care mast be taken to ensure that grains will store well without going bad and loosing viability and nutritive value. The following precautions will help to ensure good storage for grains:
1. Harvest immediately the grains are ready for harvest. Avoid leaving crops in the field for a long lane when they are already due for harvesting. This will help to reduce destruction caused by rain and pests.
2. Dry properly before storing. Grains should be 14% moisture content before storing. This can determined by putting some of the grains in a dry, clean bottle and adding some quantity of table salt. The bottle is shaken to mix up the salt with the grains and left over night. if the stick together they have not dried properly.
3. Construct store with concrete floor and metal roof. Stout be insect and rat-proof.
4. Provide ventilation in the store.
5. Fumigate store alter removing old stock and before bringing in new ones.
6. Provide raised platforms for the grain bags. Bags should mil lie on the ground or floor.
7. Allow space in-between grain bags and between bags and the walIs.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
11. AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS
12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
13. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN AGRICULTURE
14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
15. AGRICULTURAL CREDITS
16. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES
17. QUARANTINE SERVICES
18. VACCINES IN AGRICULTURE
19. FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
20. PROBLEMS OF FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
21. OPERATION FEED THE NATION




34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER










69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS

112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE








126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION







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