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TYPES OF FARM STORAGE SYSTEM




FARM STORAGE

Objectives: Students should be able to:
1. Give reasons for the storage of farm produce.
2. Outline different methods of storage, giving their advantages and disadvantages.
3. Explain the problems of storage.
4. List the precautions to be taken before the storage of grains.




AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science


Storage is an important part of farming.
This is because, not all produce harvested on the farm are used up or sold out immediately. Also, other materials on the farm must be kept to be used when needed. Storage is therefore the keeping of farm products for use in the future.


Reasons for storage
1. To prevent the losses of farm produce which might be due to pests, weather conditions or thieves.


2. To keep certain crop produce before they are processed, used, consumed or sold.

3. To store seeds or tubers for subsequent planting.




4. Storage of fertilizers; and other chemicals as well as livestock feeds, equipment and other farm tool and equipment to avoid damage.

5. To ensure even and regular supply of farm products throughout the year.

6. Farmers store farm products in order to sell them when prices are high in periods of scarcity.

7. Temporary store is done by farmers so as to make the transportation of farm products from area of production to the consuming markets easy.


types or Methods of storage
There are different methods of storage on the farm. The method adopted will depend on:
(i) The produce of material to be stored,
(ii) the moisture content of the produce, and
(iii) the duration of storage, that is, whether for a short time or a long time, The following are the methods used in storing farm produce in Nigeria:

1. Barns These are used for storing yam tubers. The method involves the tying of yam tubers with strong twine to small vertical poles, which are supported by strong horizontal poles, also tied to solid stakes. Shade is needed over the barn to prevent the tubers from excessive drying DIAGRAM Figure 3.7.1: Yam Tubers in a Barn.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science


Advantages of the barn method
1. It is cheap to construct as forest woods and ropes can readily obtained (especially in the high forest). 2. The yam tubers do not get rotten quickly because they are raised from the ground
3. It is easy to detect any tuber that is going bad.
4. It can be used to safeguard yam tubers from being eaten by the mammalian pests (e.g. rodents) and insect pests (e.g. yam beetle)

Disadvantages
1. The method is laborious
2. Yam tubers are affected by weather conditions. For example tubers become dehydrated after some time.



2. Boxes and Underground Pits or Trenches
These are used for storing cassava tubers. Yam tubers can also be stored for a short time in underground pits immediately after harvest.
Underground pit is most common for storing cassava tubers. Under this method, layers of palm fronds are laid at the bottom of the pit.
Then one or two layers of cassava tubers which must be harvested it bruise, are arranged on top of the fronds.
Another layer of is laid and tubers arranged on top. This procedure is followed ill tin pit is filled or the tubers to be stored are finished.
The top is then covered with a layer of palm fronds and about 10 cm thick of soil. The use of boxes has the same procedure, except that moist saw dust is used in place of palm fronds. The moist saw dust is placed round on top of the tubers and the tubers are also arranged in layers.


Advantages
1. It can be used to store cassava tubers up to 6 weeks.
2. The method is cheap and not too laborious.
3. If boxes are used, they can be transported.


AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science


Disadvantages
1. Cassava tubers may get rotten if not properly stored
2. It cannot keep tubers for a very long time.
3. Silos These are used for storing dry grains such as maize, guinea corn and rice. They are made of cement, metal or aluminum and are tall, round, looking like towers.
Figure 3.7.2: Silo used for Storing Dry Grains.


Advantages
1. They protect the products from insects and rodents.
2. They can accommodate large quantities of grains.
3. Because they are outright, fumigants can be safely used to protect the grains.
4. They can test for Very long time.


Disadvantages
1. Silos are very expensive to construct
2. They are not movable.
3. Grains could mound if not dried properly.
4. Cribs These are also used to store maize particularly dried unshelled cobs which have been de-husked.
Cribs consist of side poles covered by with mesh or lined closely with thatch or zinc.
DIAGRAM Figure 3.7.3:
Maize Cobs in a Crib.


Advantages
1. It is cheap and easy to use.
2. Grains are protected from rodents and birds.
3. The method can keep maize for a long time.


Disadvantages



1. It cannot accommodate large quantities at a time
2. Does not protect the grains from insects or weevils.
3. Bags or Sacks These include jute and hesian bags as well as polythene bags.
They are used for storing products such as garri(cassava flour), melon, rice and other grains. They can be kept in rooms or store while raised from the ground.


Advantages
1. They are simple and cheap to use.
2. Different sizes are available for use for different quantities of products.
3. They can be used for a wide variety of products.
4. They make transportation of products easy.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science


Disadvantages
1. They are not solid enough to protect products from rats and insects.
2. They require good rooms or store for safe-keeping.
3. Refrigerators and cold rooms These are used for fresh perishable products such as fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, etc.


Advantages
1. They are very efficient and can keep the products in good condition for a long time if there is power supply.


Disadvantages
1. They are expensive.
2. They require constant supply of power to operate.
3. Shelves Shelves are used for yam tubers and farm tools. They can be made of sawn wood or split bamboos. They are not expensive to construct.
However, shelves may be damaged by termites or other insects if not protected. Other methods of storage include:
(i) Rumbus for storing grains especially in the northern part of Nigeria.
(ii) Bins for storing grains, garri flour, etc.
(iii) Cans and tins are also used for grains and seeds,
(iv) Roofs for unshelled maize with husks which are used to hang the maize cobs and then smoked from below.
(v) Baskets for fruits and kola nuts.


Losses in Storage
The losses that occur in storage are caused by several factors, These factors can be grouped under:

1. Losses in the Field

(a) Unfavourable weather conditions: These include too much sun shine or rain high or low temperature, etc, Weather problems can be reduced by providing roofs over stored products in the field,

(b) Pests: These pests include insects, rodents and birds. Losses due to pests can be reduced by protecting stored products against insects and rodent through the use of solid materials that are insects and rodent-proof.

(c) Man: Thieves may enter into the farm to remove stored products. Providing solid fence round the farm may reduce this problem

2. Losses in the store
(a) Improper drying: This leads to mounding of grains.
(b) Poor condition of store: Leakages on the roofs, cracks on the walls, poor ventilation and dampness can lead to loss of stored products.
(c) Insects (weevils) and rats: These destroy grains in store.
(d) Fire hazards: Fire outbreak destroys stored products such as vain tuber in the barn.
(e) Thieves: Thieves may break into store and remove the products therein The problems enumerated above can be reduced by drying grains properly before storage, using well constructed storage structures fumigating store against insects. Rat poisons may be used to kill while solid doors and locks should be used to prevent thieves.

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS
Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science






How to reduce storage losses
(i) Use good quality materials in the construction of storage structures or buildings.
(ii) Clean and disinfect stores before use.
(iii) Ensure that farm products are free from pests and disease organism before storage.
(iv) All storage containers such-as bags, pots, bottles and other should be dried and cleaned before they are used. (v) Pests and disease outbreak in store should be controlled with appropriate chemicals.



7.5 Problems of storage system

The following are the problems associated with the storage of farm produce 1. High of construction Some of the methods of storing farm produce require high cost of construction and maintenance. Since most of our farmers are poor, they cannot adopt these methods, for example silo and cold loom storage.

2. The nature of produce For some farm produce, storage is very difficult because of their high level of perish-ability. Examples are vegetables, fruits, and animal products.

3. Bulky crop products Some crop products are bulky hence their storage becomes difficult. A lot of time and labour is spent in constructing the storage facilities that can accommodate them. Example is yarn tubers.


4. Effect The nature of our tropical environment makes farm storage difficult. Too much sun causes excessive drying while too much rain or high humidity causes mounding and rottening.

5. The control of insect pests and rats Insects such as the weevils cause serious damage to grains like maize, beans and rice.
The activity of rats is a serious problem because they destroy stored products and storage materials.


Precautions to be taken before grains are stored

In the storage of grains care mast be taken to ensure that grains will store well without going bad and loosing viability and nutritive value.
The following precautions will help to ensure good storage for grains:

1. Harvest immediately the grains are ready for harvest.
Avoid leaving crops in the field for a long lane when they are already due for harvesting. This will help to reduce destruction caused by rain and pests.

2. Dry properly before storing. Grains should be 14% moisture content before storing. This can determined by putting some of the grains in a dry, clean bottle and adding some quantity of table salt.
The bottle is shaken to mix up the salt with the grains and left over night. if the stick together they have not dried properly.


3. Construct store with concrete floor and metal roof. Stout be insect and rat-proof.
4. Provide ventilation in the store.
5. Fumigate store alter removing old stock and before bringing in new ones.
6. Provide raised platforms for the grain bags. Bags should mil lie on the ground or floor.
7. Allow space in-between grain bags and between bags and the wall.

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1134.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER


69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

STUDY QUESTIONS
1. State five reasons for the storage of farm produce.
2. Describe how you would best store yam tubers on the farm. State two advantages and two disadvantages of the method.
3. What are the major problems associated with farm storage?
4. Outline 5 measures you would use to ensure the safety of grains in the store.
5. What are the. factors responsible for losses in storage?
6. State three ways to reduce storage losses of farm produce.

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