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FARMING SYSTEMS


FARMING SYSTEMS Objectives: Students should be able to: 1. Outline the factors responsible for the choice of farming systems. 2. Explain the various farming systems. 3. Give the advantages and disadvantages of each farming system. 1.1 Factors Responsible for the Choice of Farming System Farming systems refer to the ways, methods or approaches adopted by various farmers in their farming operations. The system adopted by any farmer will depend on several factors. These include: 1. Availability of Farmland The amount of land available for farming affects the system that is practised by farmers. For instance, where there is abundant farmland due to low farming population, the farmers could practise shifting cultivation or bush fallowing. Land for farming is usually limited by population increase and urbanization. 2. Economic Factor The amount of capital available to a farmer could influence the farming system he adopts. A farmer with sufficient capital, for instance, may choose to practise mixed farming because this requires more capital than other systems. 3. Cultural Factor This has to do with the prevailing cultural practice in a given community. If the practice of the people is shifting cultivation. then it is very likely that every farmer will adopt the system. 4. Geographical Factor The nature of an area in terms of vegetation rainfall, and landscape (topography), also affects the farming system. This is why pastoral farming is practised mainly in the northern part of Nigeria due to its abundant grass vegetation, relatively flit liindscapc and less rainfall. 5. Nature of Soil This affects land use for crop production. Where the soil is not jlfthlc for crops,.pastoral farming may be practised. 1.2 Types of Farming System Shifting Cultivation/Bush Fallowing This is the practice of farming on a piece of land for some years then abandoning it for another piece of land. It is mainly ilHcd under subsistence agriculture and in areas with abundant farmland. Under this praeltwe, the fanner may not return to the Hri land in life. At times, however, he may return after the land has been left fallow (that is, without cultivation) for several years. The period of no cultivation is termed fallow period, hence this ksystem is also called bosh fallowing. Advantages 1. It helps to replenish the fertility of the soil in a natural way. 2. It prevents the rapid spread of crop pests-and diseases 3. It helps to control soil erosion. 4. The system reduces farmers' cost of production in terms of erosion control practices and fertilizer usage. Disadvantages 1. A lot of time and energy is usually spent by farmers in preparing fresh land for planting. 2. It leads to the destruction of valuable forest resources such as wildlife and tirrlber trees. 3. It helps to control soil erosion. 4. The system reduces farmers cost of production in terms of erosion control practices and fertilizer usage. 2. Land Rotation This is a modified system of shifting cultivation or bush falllowing. The system involves dividing an available farmland into portions. The farmer (then) farms on one portion for some time before moving to the next portion, in a definite order. This illustrated below: Figure 3.1.1: Land Rotation The system is practised in areas where farmlands are limited ai1 6. Taungya Farming This is the system whereby food crops are grown alongside trees. It involves clearing forest land (forest reserve). and food crops. Later, tree seedlings are planted in between nops to continue on the land after the food crops have been Ifvcsted. The system is practised in forest reserves in the southern part of Nigeria where the State Governments allow the use of forest reserves suable farming. Advantages 1. The fertility of the soil is usually high for crops to use for maximum productivity. 2. It is an economic way of replacing unwanted forest with desirable tree species. 3. The land is always protected against erosion. 4. The timber seedlings are protected by the food crops in their early stage of life. 5. The system provides a source of income to the government. Disadvantages 1. It leads to destruction of natural forests which may result in the loss of many forest resources. 2. At times, the needed forests may not devejop because rnost farmers do not cater for the forest trees as they are left to die under heavy cropping with cassava or plantains. 3. The system does not allow the cultivation of permanent crops such as cocoa, rubber, and oil palm. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. State and explain briefly, the factors responsible for the choice i jt inning systems. 2. List three systems of farming in your country. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of each. 3. Which farming system would you recommend for your school which has a limited farmland? Briefly explain this system and give twvo advantages of it. 4. Wliat is taungy a fanning? Give two advantages and two disadvantages of the system. 5. Illustrate with a diagram the land rotation system.

here are some useful post for you

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
1134.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER


69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES

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