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HISTORICAL DEV. OF AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIA



HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIA

Objectives: Students should be able to: 1. Trace the development of agriculture from early man stage to date, with particular reference to Nigeria. 1. The pre-Independence (colonial) period. 2. The post independence period.


1.

The Pre-independence Period

The beginning of agricultural activities in Nigeria dated back to 1893 when the Department of Botanical Research was established at >>>>>> near Abeokuta in the present Ogun State. This reformation of the eight Department of Government by Sir Claude McDonald. The Department of Botany was not only interested in Botany, but also in forest and agriculture matters In 1905, the British Cotton Growers' Association's 10.35 sq.km of land at a site near Ibadan. This later become Moore Plantation, Ibadan, 'named after Mr. R. E. Moore, who was in charge of Southern Protectorate of Nigeria The initial purpose of Moore Plantation was the production Cotton for British Textile Industry, but it failed due to poor feasibility study. The plantation then became the headquarter Department of Agriculture in Southern Nigeria. In 1910








an agricultural experimental station was located al Moore Plantation. In 1912, Lord Lugard established a Department of Agriculture in northern Nigeria. Later, in 1921, after the amalgamation of the Southern and Northern Protectorates in 1914, the Southern and Northern Departments of Agriculture were merged under the Directorship of O. T. Faulkner. The Department had the following objectives: (a) Experimental production of export crops (b) Improvement and maintenance of soil fertility (c) Efficient marketing of agricultural produce (d) Introduction of agricultural education for Nigerians, and (e) Establishment of extension service. Following this, two schools of agriculture were established: one in Samaru. Zaria. and the other at Moore Plantation. Demonstration farms were also established in different parts of the region, though they failed to yield the desired goals and so faded out. In 1948. There was an ordinance which consolidated all agricultural policies and regulations as laid down by Faulkner. The policy continued until 1954 when the regional ministries of agriculture were established, following the creation of the regions. Between 1954-1955, a School of Agriculture was established at Umudike. Umuahia (Abia State) to serve the then Eastern Region.

2.

The Post-Independence Period

This began in 1960. It marked an era of extensive planning in agriculture with emphasis on export crops such as groundnuts, rubber, cocoa and oil palm. With the a creation of 12 states,







in 1967, agriculture further expanded with every State having a Ministry of Agriculture, while at the federal level was a Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources . This was the period when agriculture was the mainstay OF Nigeria's economy. The period of oil boom which followed the end of the civil war ¬led to the abandonment of agriculture by the Nigerian government, agriculture was therefore left in the hands of the aged peasants with concentration on food crops production. With the decline of oil income and the emergence of austerity measures, efforts were then directed towards increasing the production of food and export crops in Nigeria. Subsequent governments have therefore come out with different agricultural policies and programmes aimed at boosting the level of agricultural production. Thus, we have:

(i) Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) of 1976 (ii) Green Revolution of 1980. There is also the Agricultural Development Projects (ADP) established during the third National Development Plan period (1975-1980) and many others such as School to Land (Rivers State), and Communal Farms of the former Bendel State.


Today, the production of export crops is regaining prominence There are several Schools of Agriculture: Universities of Agriculture and Faculties of Agriculture in the Universities. Also, there are several research institutes for Agriculture, large commercial farms both private and government owned in Nigeria. Agricultural Science is taught in all post-primary schools in the country. Practical agriculture is a core-course at the junior school level, while agricultural science is one of the compulsory vocational subjects at the senior school level. STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Briefly explain the historical development of agriculture in Nigeria since independence. . 2. Explain the historical development of agriculture in the post-independence period.



HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE

34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER










69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL

112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION






351.

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