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IMPORTANCE OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURE



AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE ROLES OF GOVERNMENT


Agriculture is the main stay of any economy. Agricultural development has been of great concern to many countries of the world. But in the West African region of the world, the development of agriculture has been on the decline because of government policies and interference the agricultural settings. Ideally agricultural development in most developing countries is relatively very low when compared to their developed counterparts. So to safeguard the declining trend is this aspect, every government of the world, either developed or undeveloped has put in place policies or regulations aimed at increasing productivity and income for farmers. The government therefore provides agricultural education, agricultural credit, subsidies, research and quarantine services, establish farm settlement scheme and supply vaccines to farmer to encourage productivity.

AGRICULTURAL POLICIES: on this front, agricultural policies


varies from country to country. But in general all such policies has same goal and projected to enhance agricultural production. So the basic agricultural policies including the following



i. To increase the quantity of sustainable food crops which can be produced in order to meet the growing demand and changing taste of the ever-growing population.

ii. To increase the quality and efficiency of producing the major export crops as demanded in the international market index to meet up foreign exchange.

iii. To provide employment opportunities through the establishment of large farms

iv. To supply the essential raw materials necessary for the development of the local industries

v. To increase the production of livestock products such as meat-protein

vi. To apply mechanization processes in agricultural production

vii. To find lasting solution to the problems of agricultural development through the establishment of research centres.

PROGRAM PLANNING OF GOVERNMENT


After the government has stated its policies towards agricultural development, it then draws up programs that leads to its successful execution.

A plan is therefore define as an organization of goals and the methods to achieving these goals. Some of the major programs initiated by various government includes but not limited to the following

i. Extension services

ii. Loans and credit schemes

iii. Subsidies

iv. Farm settlement schemes

v. Oil palm planting scheme

vi. Operation feed the Nation

vii. Fertilizer application scheme

viii. The green revolution of countries like Nigeria

ix. The River Basin Authority Scheme

x. Agricultural development scheme

AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS


Agricultural regulations are rules made by any government in order to control agricultural activities. These regulations are meant for the farmers to adopt and they vary from country to country. Depending on the social-economic ties of the region involved, therefore agricultural development, agricultural reform and agricultural policies are never universal but be that as it may, agricultural laws are mostly aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity. So the basic aim of agricultural development laws and policies includes but not limited to the following




i. To maintain high quality standard of farm produce

ii. To control disease, pests, weeds and erosion

iii. To conserve and protect the natural resource from undue exploitation

For example, it is a criminal offense to trespass or for an unauthorized person to enter forest reserved areas to fell tress. These regulation are aimed at protecting forest and wildlife. This form of agricultural regulation and laws will enhance the systematic exploitation of forest. One of the various agricultural regulation and laws stated that it is an offense to set the forest on fire on no condition. Another agricultural regulation laws and policies states that it is an offense to use chemicals in killing fishes. In a nutshell, all agricultural regulation is geared making the average human life more enjoying.

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION


Agricultural education is an established centers for teaching and learning about agricultural science. Some of the advantages of agricultural education are as follows

i. Agricultural education is an important factor for achieving enlightenment, economic growth and development

ii. Agricultural education deals with the acquisition of knowledge and its application to the solution of human problems

iii. Agricultural education and training provides the farmer with basic suitable skills which can be applied to increase his performance.

iv. Agricultural education improves the efficiency of labour and management

Modern farming requires basic training in order to increase their productive potentials, so that agricultural principles and new techniques can be transferred into practical activity. Some of the aims of agricultural education are as follows

i. To educate farmers in order to increase their productive potentials.

ii. To raise the social status of the farmer and farming as business.

iii. To develop in farmers the sense of responsibility and hard work.



RESEARCH CENTRES IN NIGERIA


In Nigeria, the government has spent huge sums of money in the establishment of research centres across the country where new improved varieties of crops and livestock are produced. These improved varieties of crops are very high yielding species and they usually disease resistant.

Research may be regarded as an advanced stage of study which is aimed at discovering what is hidden. There are two main types of research, they are 1. Basic and 2. Applied research. In addition to these, research is also carried out by government specialized agencies such as these

i. The national cereal research institute. Badeggi

ii. The cocoa research institute of Nigeria. Onigambari-Ibadan

iii. The institute for oil palm research. Benin Edo state

iv. The Nigerian institute for trypanosomiasis research institute Vom near Jos

v. Rubber research institute of Nigeria. Benin City

vi. The Rokupr research institute for Rice. Sierra Leone



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION


Agricultural Extension education is basically an adult education program brought to the rural farmers by extension agents, at their homes. The aims of agricultural extension includes but not limited to the following

i. To bring information to the farmer which can be of utmost usefulness to the him, in form of new development which can be applied to improve agricultural production such as the use of fertilizers, improved breeds of livestock, improved crop variety and the use of pesticide, herbicides and farm mechanization

ii. To instruct farmers on new farming techniques such as the ideal time of planting and harvesting, crop spacing during planting time, new storage method and basic soil conservation principles.

iii. To instruct farmers good farming management practices. Efficient marketing channels, better processing methods and transportation means

iv. To encourage leadership qualities and cooperative living

v. To raise the social; status of the farmer through basic health education

AGRICULTURAL CREDITS


Credit is a payable form of financial assistance given to farmers, with or without interest to help them execute their farm. Credits can be in cash or kind. In order to achieve greater output in production, farmers need credit facility to excel. Agricultural Credits are generally provided by government agencies.

In practice, farmers usually find it very difficult to obtain agricultural Credit from these government agencies most especially in Nigeria. So most farmers in Nigeria find it difficult to excel for lack of Credit facilities.

AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES


The government of any country plays an important role in the development of agriculture through the provision of subsidies. Subsidies are a form of assistance which are meant to help farmers. Agricultural subsidies are like discount on goods given to farmers on subsidized rate. Agricultural subsidies are generally very important to poor farmers living in remote areas, who don’t also know the right place purchase some of the materials like fertilizers and other farm implement. With the aid of agricultural subsidies, the living standard of the average farmer is also lifted to higher level. Agricultural subsidies are also a away or methods through which the government can tackle the rate of inflation.

Thus agricultural subsidies helps to solve the problem of finance in the chain of production.



QUARANTINE SERVICE


The government of any nation can help in agricultural development by building or providing quarantine services. Plant quarantine regulation are made by the government the introduction and prevention foreign plant/crop diseases into the country. The primary purpose of agricultural quarantine service in agricultural science is to protect the internally produced crops within a country from diseases and pests from countries. Quarantine service can also be applied to prevent the spread of certain species plants or crops.

During quarantine service period the imported crops or plants are kept under close supervision and observation. If the disease symptoms appear for which the plant was quarantine, the plant is destroyed immediately.



VACCINES


The effects of most diseases causing organisms can be avoided by using preventive methods. One of such methods is to immunize animals against diseases with the use Vaccines. A Vaccine is weakened germs which stimulate the body of the intended organism to develop immunity. A good vaccination program is an important part of animal husbandry especially within the young stocks. The provision of vaccines for use on animals or humans is solely the responsibility of the government through the department of health or Veterinary division of the ministry of agriculture and natural resources. Vaccines are usually provided free of charge or at a subsidized rate.



FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME




agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
11. AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS
12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
13. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN AGRICULTURE
14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
15. AGRICULTURAL CREDITS
16. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES
17. QUARANTINE SERVICES
18. VACCINES IN AGRICULTURE
19. FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
20. PROBLEMS OF FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
21. OPERATION FEED THE NATION


22. THE GREEN RESOLUTION
23. LAND TENURE SYSTEMS
24. GOVERNMENT LAWS OF LAND REFORMS
25. FARM INSURANCE SCHEME
26. TYPES OF FARM INSURANCE
27. AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES
28. TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES




29. LAND AND ITS USES
30. AGRICULTURAL LANDS
31. NON-AGRICULTURAL LANDS
32. LAND USE POLICIES
33. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER







69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
91. NITROGEN
92. PHOSPHORUS
93. POTASSIUM
94. CALCIUM
95. MAGNESIUM
96. SULPHUR
97. MICRO NUTRIENT IN GENERAL-TRACE OR MINOR ELEMENTS
98. IRON
99. BORON
100. ZINC



____________________________________
101. MANGANESE
102. SODIUM
103. CHLORINE
104. COPPER
105. COBALT
106. MOLYBDENUM
107. THE CARBON AND NITROGEN CYCLE
108. CARBON CYCLE
109. NITROGEN CYCLE
110. AMMONIUM SALT
111. NITROGEN FIXATION
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS


125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION

168. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
169. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
170. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
171. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
172. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
173. CROP PRODUCTION
174. MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
175. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
176. OIL PALM
177. USES OF PALM OIL
178. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
179. COCOA






180. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
181. HOLING AND LINING
182. YAM
183. LAND PREPARATION
184. SEED RATE
185. SPACING
186. PLANTING DEPT
187. STORAGE OF YAM
188. STAKING
189. HARVESTING OF YAM
190. COW-PEA
191. JUTE
192. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
193. FORAGE GRASSES
194. SILAGE
195. PASTURE
196. TYPES OF PASTURE
197. COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
198. GRASSES
199. LEGUMES
200. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
202. HAY
203. SILAGE
204. FORESTRY
205. IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY
206. FOREST MANAGEMENT
207. FOREST REGULATION
208. DEFORESTATION
209. AFFORESTATION
210. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
211. MAIZE SMUT
212. RICE BLAST
213. MAIZE RUST
214. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
215. COW-PEA MOSAIC
216. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
217. COFFEE RUST
218. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
219. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
220. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
221. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
222. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
223. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
224. PESTSOF CROPS
225. STEM BORERS
226. ARMY WORM
227. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
228. APHIDS
229. WHITE FLY
230. SEED BUGS
231. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
232. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
233. GREEN SPIDER MITE
234. COTTON STAINER
235. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
236. GRASSHOPPER
237. THRIPS
238. LEAF ROLLER
239. BEAN BEETLE
240. RICE WEEVILS
241. RATS
242. SQUIRREL
243. GRASS-CUTTER
244. BIRDS SUCH AS WEAVER BIRD
245. PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
246. CROP IMPROVEMENT
247. AIMS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
248. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
249. METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
250. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
251. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
252. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
253. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
254. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF POULTRY BIRDS
255. THE GIZZARD
256. RUMINANT ANIMALS
257. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONO-GASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMALS
258. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
259. COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
260. THE NEURONS
261. A SYNAPSE ACTION
262. IMPULSE

263. REFLEX ACTION
264. VOLUNTARY ACTION
265. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
266. THE BRAIN
267. PARTS OF THE BRAIN THE SPINAL CORD
268. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
269. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
270. MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
271. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
272. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
273. THE HEART
274. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
275. THE TRACHEA
276. INSPIRATION
277. THE EXPIRATION
278. THE DIAPHRAGM
279. REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS
280. HEAT PERIODS
281. OESTROUS CYCLE
282. MATING
283. GESTATION PERIOD
284. PARTURITION
285. MAMMARY GLAND
286. LACTATION
287. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
288. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
289. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
290. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
291. POULTRY
292. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
293. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
294. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
295. SEMI-INTENSIVE
296. EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
297. PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
298. POULTRY SANITATION
299. ANIMAL NUTRITION
300. RATION
301. CONCENTRATE
302. ROUGHAGE
303. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
304. CARBOHYDRATES
305. PROTEIN
306. FATS
307. MINERALS
308. VITAMINS
309. TYPES OF DIETS
310. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
311. LAYER DIETS
312. BALANCED DIETS
313. LACTATION DIETS
314. MALNUTRITION
315. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
316. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
317. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
318. VIRAL DISEASES
319. RINDER PESTS
320. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
321. BACTERIA DISEASES
322. ANTHRAX
323. BRUCELLOSIS
324. TUBERCULOSIS
325. FUNGAL DISEASES
326. ASPERGILOSIS
327. RING WORM
328. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
329. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
330. COCCIDIOSIS
331. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
332. ENDO PARASITES
333. TAPE WORM
334. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
335. LIVER FLUKE
336. ECTO PARASITES
337. TICK
338. LICE
339. MITES
340. FISH FARMING
341. IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING
342. ESTABLISHMENT OF FISH PONDS
343. HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OF FISH
344. ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
345. PROCESSES OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
346. GENETIC INTRODUCTION(MIGRATION)
347. SYSTEMS OF BREEDING
348. INBREEDING






349. OUT-BREEDING
350. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
351.



The government also establishes a farm settlement scheme in order to improve agricultural production.

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