PLANT FORMS AND SYSTEM

PLANT FORMS Objectives is that students should be able to ; 1. Identify the main parts of plants. 2. Draw and label (i) Monocot (ii) Dicot plant. 3. Differentiate between Monocot and Dicot plants.



4. List the functions of the different parts of a plant.
4.1 EXTERNAL FEATURES OF A CROP PLANT
(a) Parts of a crop plant A typical crop plant such as mango, orange, pepper, tomato, guava etc is made up of two main parts, these as follows;

1. ROOT SYSTEM: this is the part of plant found under the ground.
2. SHOOT SYSTEM: this part of a crop plant is always visible and is usually above the ground.


The shoot system of a typical crop plant is made up of the following, leaves, stem, and flowers. The stem of a typical crop plant connects the root and leaves together. In most plants, the stem also has branches and most of these branches end with terminal buds. The stem carries the flowers used in reproducing new crop plant



(b) Parts of a Monocotyledonous Crop Plant Monocot crop plants are those crops that have one seed leaf or cotyledon. E.g. maize, rice, millet, sorghum etc. these types of Crops usually have three main parts: they are i,the root ii, the stem iii. Inflorescence or flowering heads The roots of a typical mono-cot is of the same sizes The root system of a monocot plant is known as fibrous root system The stem of a monocot plant are usually erect while others may be prostrate. The internodes are hollow while the nodes of some monocots like spear grass have roots The nodes also bear leaves The leaves of monocot plants are mostly alternate and in two rows. The leaves are elongated with parallel venation The flowering head is the reproductive part of the plant Monocot crops like maize have the male flower at the top of the plant and the female flower at the axils of the leaves ©PARTS OF DICOTYLEDONOUS CROP PLANT.



DICOT CROP PLANTS ARE THOSE WITH TWO seed leaves or cotyledons. Dicotyledonous crop plants such as cocoa , cowpea, groundnut, mango and others have two main parts: namely the shoot and the root system 1. THE ROOT: THIS IS FOUND BELOW THE GROUND LEVEL.



THE ROOT HAS MANY BRANCHES. The biggest and longest of them is called the taproot. The other root are smaller and usually develops from the taproot as such they are called the secondary root. 2. THE SHOOT: this part of the crop is always the ground. It is made up of the main stem and the branches. The leaves manufacture food for the crop plant. The leaves are broad with net venation. The stem and branches of the crop plant bears the flowers. The flowers are the reproductive part of the crop plant. 4.2 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOCOT AND DICOT CROP PLANTS FUNCTIONS OF THE MAIN PARTS OF CROP PLANT The main parts of crop plant such as the roots, stem, leaves and the flowers perform many functions for the crop/plant. They are as follows: (a) FUNCTIONS OF THE ROOTS i. The roots hold the crop firmly to the ground ii. The roots absorbs water and minerals from the soil………through a process called osmosis and diffusion iii. Some roots store food. Examples are cassava and carrot iv. The roots of some crops fix the nitrogen of the air for crop use. Examples are soya beans and groundnut. v. Some roots are used to produce new ones (plant). Example is sweet potato. (b) FUNCTIONS OF THE STEM i. THE STEM TRANSFERS FOOD FROM THE LEAVES TO THE OTHER PARTS OF THE CROP ii. The stem conducts water and minerals absorbed by roots to other parts of the crop. iii. The stem carries the leaves, flowers and fruits of the crop. iv. The stem stores food as in yam and Irish potato. v. The stem of some crop are used to reproduce new crop as in cassava and Ixora



FUNCTIONS OF THE LEAVES I. The leaves makes food for the crop through a process called photosynthesis. II. They permit air to enter and leave the crop through the stomata. A tiny hole found on the leaves. III. Some leave store food such as Onion and water leave IV. Some leaves are used to reproduce new plant as in Bryophyllum called life plant FUNCTIONS OF THE FLOWERS i. The flowers attracts insect to the crop for pollination. ii. The flowers produce fruits and seeds STUDY QUESTIONS. i. Draw and label the main parts of a crop plant ii. In a tabular form, state the differences between Dicot and monocot crop plant

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1134.
FORESTRY
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63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
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66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
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68. WATER


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70. HYDROLYSIS
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