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SOIL NUTRIENTS, SOIL FERTILITY AND SOIL MANAGEMENT


SOIL FERTILITY AND MANAGEMENT

Objectives: The students should be able to:
1. Explain the meaning of soil fertility a nd a fertile soil.
2. Outline the various methods of soil fertility management.
3. State the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Soil fertility is the capacity of the soil to supply mineral nutrient elements to crop. The nutrients must be in adequate amounts and in suitable proportions to enhance crop production. A fertile soil ie that which contains adequate nutrient elements required by crops.

2.1

Characteristics of a Fertile Soil

1. High cation exchange capacity (C.E.C.







2. Good water holding capacity
3. Adequate humus contents
4. Good granular (Spheroidal)
5. Easily tilled (good workability)
6. Essential elements available in required forms and amount.

Sometimes, a soil may not be able to produce good crops even if it is fertile. This is because of the inability of the soil to make nutrients available to the crops in the right amount.

This can happen because of several factors such as:
(a) Too much acids or bases in the soil.
(b) Poor soil structure.
(c) The proportion of the different soil particles present in the soil (Texture).
(d) Climatic factors such as amount of rainfall and temperature.
(e) The nature of the clay lattice.
(f) Cation exchange capacity of the soil.



Methods of Soil Fertility Management

There are several methods that can be used to maintain the fertility of the soil. They include bush fallowing, cover cropping, rotation cropping, application of organic and inorganic fertilizers.



1.

Bush fallowing

This is the practice of leaving a farm-land uncultivated for a period of time. This is to allow the soil to regain its lost nutrients in natural form. For instance, leaves from the shrubs and herbs drop and dcray thus adding manure to the soil.

Advantages
1. It can effectively maintain soil fertility in areas with low pressure on land.
2. It protects the soil against erosion.
3. Fallen leaves decompose to increase organic matter content of the soil.
4. Evaporation of soil water and leaching of minerals are reduced.
5. There is also a build up of living organisms in the soil which arc useful for soil modification and
granulation.


Disadvantages







1. It is a very slow process of mainlnining soil fertility.
2. It does not suit the increasing demand for land due to population increase.
3. The period allowed for fallow is not enough for adequate replacement of lost nutrients.

2.

Cover Cropping

This is the growing of crops purposely to provide cover for the. soil. Crops such as melon, cowpea (trailing type), groundnut, sweet potato, and others could be grown along side the main crops to provide cover for the soil. Others like pueraria. niucuna and centrosema can be used in plantations or on fallow lands


Advantages
1. They protect the soil against erosion.
2. Evaporation of soil water is reduced.
3. They prevent the leaching of useful mineral elements in the soil.
4. They suppress weeds on the farmland
5. Their fallen leaves decompose to add organic matter to the soil.
6. Where legumes are used, they help to increase the nitrogen content of the soil due to the action of root nodule bacteria
7. They can be worked into the soil as green
8. They help to maintain fairly stable soil temperature

Disadvantages
1. Cover crops compete with the main crops for nutrient elements and available water.
2. They increase the rate of loss of water in the soil through transpiration.

3.

Rotation Cropping

This is the growing of crops on a piece of land year after year in a definite order.

Advantages
1. The use of a good rotational system of cropping enables soil to be used continuously without rapid loss of essential nutrients.
2. It is an ideal system to be used where land is scarce.
3. It is a labour saving system as the same land is prepared for planting every year.
4. Weeds are effectively checked.
5. Erosion is reduced because the land is not exposed.
6. It reduces the build up, of host specific diseases and pests.

Disadvantages
The major disadvantage of this method is that continuous tillage of the surface soil renders it loose and easily eroded.'


4.

Organic Manuring

Manures are plants and animal materials that are added to the soil to supply nutrieiits needed for the growth of crops. A well decomposed organic matter is called humus. Humus is a rich source of plant nutrients suitable for vegetable gardening.



Types of Organic Manures

The major types of organic manures are green manure, form yard manure and compost manure

(i)

Green manures:

These are undecomposed green plants parts which are turned into the soil. Some plants are grown specifically to be worked or dug intp the ground to serve as source of plant nutrients. Examples arc mucuna, centrosema. pueraria. calopogonium and fresh green weeds. This is done mostly when they are young and succulent tor easy decomposition. It also involves the growing of leguminous plants for the purpose of soil improvement. This is the reason for increase in yield of other crops planted after a legume, such as groundnut, pigeon peas, and cowpea which add nitrogen In the soil has been harvested.

Advantages
(a) It provides organic matter to the soil to improve its physical condition.
(b) It supplies nitrogen and other plant nutrients.
(c) It protects the soil against erosion.
(d) It reduces the loss of nutrients through leaching.

Disadvantages
(a) There is competition for basic nutrients and water.
(b) They may harbour diseases and pests of crop plant.
(c) It may be expensive to grow green manure plants.

It is advised that plants to be used as green manure should
(a) Easily establish.
(b) Grow quickly.
(c) Produce abundant succulent shoots and roots in a short time.
(d) Easily cover the ground.
(e) Grow on poor soils.

(ii)

Farm yard manure:

This is a mixture of animal droppings, urine, food remains and bedding or litter. Manure from poultry, goats and sheep are the richest forms of farm yard manure. They are followed by those of pigs, horse and cattle.

The materials are heaped under a shed to decompose for sometime before use. They could be used direct on the farm. They should be properly handled, as too much exposure may lead to breakdown of the nutrients. The more volatile constituents such as nitrogen could be lost as ammonia gas. It is often better to mix manures from different types of animals to be used as pen manure than to apply only one type.





The quality of farm yard manure depends on:

(i) The species of animals producing the materials
(ii) Age and condition of the animal.
(iii) The type of feed given to the animal.
(iv) Nature and amount of litter. That is, whether absorbent materials are used as bedding
(v) The handling and methods of storage before use on the farm.

Farm yard manure can be applied by broadcasting before tillage especially when the soil is moist or wet. It can be spread on the bed and mixed with the soil before planting.

Advantages
1. It contains ail the required plant nutrients.
2. It is reasonably cheap as it can be obtained from the farm.
3. It has a lasting effect on the soil.
4. It binds loose sandy soil together.
5. It also loosens compact clay soils.
6. It enables the soil to absorb and retain moisture easily.

Disadvantages
1. It is very bulky.
2. It requires much labour during application.
3. It has the tendency to encourage rapid growth of weeds.

(iii)

Compost manure:

This is the decayed plant and animal remains in heaps or stacks or pits, used as
manure on the farm.

The materials needed for compost making include grass cuttings, hedge trimmings, weeds, vegetable wastes, leaves and other organic wastes from the kitchen. Ash or lime or animal dungs or old compost, chemical activators such as sulphate of ammonia are also added. Young and succulent plant parts should be used instead of woody and tough parts. This is because decomposition is easier and contains much nutrients for healthy plant growth.







AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit


A suitable area of the farm, preferably near the edge, should be chosen. The area should not be water-logged. When prepared during the dry season, there should be a nearby water source.

Methods of compost making: Two methods can be used in compost making. These are the pit method and the stack or heap method. The pit method is used in areas of low rainfall or in the dry season while the stack or heap method is used in high rainfall areas or during the rainy season. Whichever method is used , the processes as well as the materials used remain the same.



Processes of compost making


1. Dig lour pits or peg out four areas.
2. Add kitchen wastes, yam peelings, orange skin and pulp, rotten fruits and anything that rots easily.
3. Then, add grass cuttings. hedge trimmings, vegetable wastes and till or the desired height is compress.
4. Repeat this process until the pit is filled or the desired height reached if heap method is used.
5. Cover the top with soil to prevent the entering of flies.
6. Insert a stick at one end or at the centre in case of pit method. This is called a "tester". It detects if decomposition is going on or not. The stick will be hot if there is decomposition after about 5 days or else, it will be cold.
7. Turn materials or the content of pit A or heap A into B after two weeks. Refill pit or heap A. Repeat this step until pit or heap D is reached and the desired quantity obtained.
8. Cover the final products with suitable materials until it is ready for use. This will prevent the loss of important nutrients due to strong sun or rain water.

‘Starters' are materials used to initiate decomposition process of compost materials. Examples are animal wastes, old compost or materials that rot easily.

Chemicals such as sulphate of ammonia could be used to induce decaying process in the absence of starters. Such chemicals are called 'activators''.




AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit


Figure 2.2.1: Turning of compost in pit or stack.

Advantages of compost manure
1. It provides sources of food to living organisms in the soil. ics are earthworms, termites and microbes.
2. It adds nutrients to the soil for increased crop yield,
3. It improves the physical condition of the soil structure and texture.
4. It helps to maintain equal amounts of acid and ha-. the soil.
5. It helps to conserve soil moisture and prevents erosion
6. It has a modifying effect on soil temperature;



Disadvantages
1. It involves much labour in preparation.
2. It is time involving and not economic for use in large farms.
3. It could cause scorching if applied when not fully matured
4. It may introduce disease causing agents. This will happen if not may properly handled or allowed to mature before use.



Application of inorganic manures or fertilizers


Inorganic manures or fertilizers are chemical substances in of powder, granules or crystals which are added to the soil to provide nutrients that are deficient. Fertilizers are manufactured in the industry from rocks and other materials.

Types of fertilizers

There are two types of fertilizers:

(i) Straight or single or simple fertilizers: These are fertilizers that contain one of the major plant nutrients in the form plants can use. They contain one primary element such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in their composition. These are called the key nutrients.

Examples are sulphate of ammonia, urea, ammonia nitrate, sodium nitrate with nitrogen as the key nutrient. Also, single super phosphate, concentrated super phosphate and calcium metaphosphate all contain phosphorus as their key element. Others are muriate of potash (potassium (1) chloride), crude potash and caliphate-of-potash-alliiavmg -potassium-asthe-ir-primary element.

(ii) Mixed or complex or compound fertilizers: These are fertilizers that contain two or more primary nutrient elements pilli filler materials. The nutrients are in ratios and the ratio refers to the proportion of the major nutrients to one another. Examples are N.P.K: 15:15:15, 20:20:20, N.P.K: Mg. 12: 12:17:2 and o






Handling of fertilizers:

As a result of the inherent hazards of fertilizers such as stinging sensations, blisters, itching irritations and other skin diseases, care should be taken to avoid bodily contacts. therefore, the user should always put on gloves and protective clothing when handling fertilizers.

Storage of fertilizers:

Fertilizers are stored in bags of synthetic fabrics which prevent entry of water and moist air that could lead to dissolution.

Tarpaulins should be used to give additional protection to the fertilizers stored at ports warehouses, field depots of the Ministry of Agriculture and other agencies.

Farmers should construct a simple fertilizer store among their stead. They should be stored differently according to types for easy identification and access. Platforms of wood should be made on which the bags are stacked, up to a considerable height, to avoid slippage and allow for easy stock taking. It should not rest on the wail. Air circulation should be encouraged in the store.

Advantages of fertilizers:

1. They bring about increase in crop yield.
2. They increase farm income.
3. They increase the productivity of poor soils.
4. They are easily transported to where they are needed compared to organic manures.
5. They are used on large scale.
6. The nutrients in fertilizers are readily available to crops.

Disadvantages

1. Fertilizers are easily leached in the soil.
2. Some fertilizers leave acidic residues in the soil.
3. Inorganic manures do not improve soil structure.
4. Some of the nutrients aie easily lost as gases under intense heat of the sun. Example is ammonia. 5. Fertilizers are expensive to procure.
6. They are sometimes not available at the time of need.


AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit

Methods of applying fertilizers

1. Broadcasting: This is where fertilizer is evenly spread on the farmland. It could be done before ploughing or tillage to incorporate it into the soil.
2. Side dressing or application: This is where small quantity of fertilizer is placed on one or two sides of individual crop.
3. Ring application: A shallow trench is dug round individual crop a few centimetres away from the stem. Fertilizer is then sprinkled in the trench and covered with soil.
4. Row application: This is where fertilizer is applied in row few centimetres from the crops. It is suitable when crops are planted in rows
5. Top dressing: This is where fertilizer is applied to the surface soil within the reach of the roots of crops during the growing stage.
6. Foliage application: This is where soluble fertilizers are applied as sprays on the leaves of crops.



agricultural biology topics


HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.


1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
11. AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS
12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
13. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN AGRICULTURE
14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
15. AGRICULTURAL CREDITS
16. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES
17. QUARANTINE SERVICES
18. VACCINES IN AGRICULTURE
19. FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
20. PROBLEMS OF FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
21. OPERATION FEED THE NATION


22. THE GREEN RESOLUTION
23. LAND TENURE SYSTEMS
24. GOVERNMENT LAWS OF LAND REFORMS
25. FARM INSURANCE SCHEME
26. TYPES OF FARM INSURANCE
27. AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES
28. TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES


29. LAND AND ITS USES
30. AGRICULTURAL LANDS
31. NON-AGRICULTURAL LANDS
32. LAND USE POLICIES
33. WHAT IS AGRICULTURE
34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER







69. WIND
70. HYDROLYSIS
71. HYDRATION
72. CARBONATION
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
91. NITROGEN
92. PHOSPHORUS
93. POTASSIUM
94. CALCIUM
95. MAGNESIUM
96. SULPHUR
97. MICRO NUTRIENT IN GENERAL-TRACE OR MINOR ELEMENTS
98. IRON
99. BORON
100. ZINC



____________________________________
101. MANGANESE
102. SODIUM
103. CHLORINE
104. COPPER
105. COBALT
106. MOLYBDENUM
107. THE CARBON AND NITROGEN CYCLE
108. CARBON CYCLE
109. NITROGEN CYCLE
110. AMMONIUM SALT
111. NITROGEN FIXATION
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS


125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION
167. PROBLEMS OF MECHANIZATION

168. SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARMSTEAD
169. IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEY
170. SURVEY EQUIPMENT
171. PRINCIPLES OF FARM OUTLAY
172. SUMMARY OF FARM SURVEYING
173. CROP PRODUCTION
174. MAIZE- ZEA MAYS
175. CULTIVATION OF MAIZE CROP
176. OIL PALM
177. USES OF PALM OIL
178. MAINTENANCE OF PALM PLANTATION
179. COCOA






180. PROCESSES IN COCOA CULTIVATION
181. HOLING AND LINING
182. YAM
183. LAND PREPARATION
184. SEED RATE
185. SPACING
186. PLANTING DEPT
187. STORAGE OF YAM
188. STAKING
189. HARVESTING OF YAM
190. COW-PEA
191. JUTE
192. FORAGE CROP AND PASTURE
193. FORAGE GRASSES
194. SILAGE
195. PASTURE
196. TYPES OF PASTURE
197. COMMON GRASSES AND LEGUMES
198. GRASSES
199. LEGUMES
200. ESTABLISHMENT OF PASTURES
201. FORAGE PRESERVATION
202. HAY
203. SILAGE
204. FORESTRY
205. IMPORTANCE OF FORESTRY
206. FOREST MANAGEMENT
207. FOREST REGULATION
208. DEFORESTATION
209. AFFORESTATION
210. DISEASES AND PESTS OF CROPS
211. MAIZE SMUT
212. RICE BLAST
213. MAIZE RUST
214. LEAF SPOT OF GROUNDNUT
215. COW-PEA MOSAIC
216. COCOA BLACK POD DISEASE
217. COFFEE RUST
218. CASSAVA BACTERIA BLIGHT
219. BLACK ARM BACTERIA BLIGHT OF COTTON
220. TOMATO ROOT KNOT
221. DAMPING-OFF OF TOMATO
222. ONION DOWNY MILDEW
223. STORED PRODUCE MOULD
224. PESTSOF CROPS
225. STEM BORERS
226. ARMY WORM
227. COCOA MIRIDS(CAPSIDS)
228. APHIDS
229. WHITE FLY
230. SEED BUGS
231. CASSAVA MEALYBUGS
232. VARIEGATED GRASSHOPPER
233. GREEN SPIDER MITE
234. COTTON STAINER
235. PESTS OF VEGETABLES
236. GRASSHOPPER
237. THRIPS
238. LEAF ROLLER
239. BEAN BEETLE
240. RICE WEEVILS
241. RATS
242. SQUIRREL
243. GRASS-CUTTER
244. BIRDS SUCH AS WEAVER BIRD
245. PROBLEMS WITH PESTS CONTROL
246. CROP IMPROVEMENT
247. AIMS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
248. PROCESS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
249. METHODS OF CROP IMPROVEMENT
250. HYBRIDIZATION OF CROPS
251. ANIMAL PRODUCTION
252. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF ANIMALS
253. THE LARGE AND SMALL INTESTINE
254. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF POULTRY BIRDS
255. THE GIZZARD
256. RUMINANT ANIMALS
257. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONO-GASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMALS
258. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
259. COMPONENTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
260. THE NEURONS
261. A SYNAPSE ACTION
262. IMPULSE

263. REFLEX ACTION
264. VOLUNTARY ACTION
265. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
266. THE BRAIN
267. PARTS OF THE BRAIN THE SPINAL CORD
268. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
269. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
270. MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
271. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF BIRDS
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
272. THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
273. THE HEART
274. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
275. THE TRACHEA
276. INSPIRATION
277. THE EXPIRATION
278. THE DIAPHRAGM
279. REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS
280. HEAT PERIODS
281. OESTROUS CYCLE
282. MATING
283. GESTATION PERIOD
284. PARTURITION
285. MAMMARY GLAND
286. LACTATION
287. EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY
288. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
289. MANAGEMENT OF GOATS
290. REPRODUCTION IN GOAT
291. POULTRY
292. POULTRY MANAGEMENT
293. BATTERY CAGE SYSTEM
294. INTENSIVE SYSTEM
295. SEMI-INTENSIVE
296. EXTENSIVE SYSTEM
297. PROODING AND REARING IN POULTRY
298. POULTRY SANITATION
299. ANIMAL NUTRITION
300. RATION
301. CONCENTRATE
302. ROUGHAGE
303. NUTRIENT SOURCES AND FUNCTIONS
304. CARBOHYDRATES
305. PROTEIN
306. FATS
307. MINERALS
308. VITAMINS
309. TYPES OF DIETS
310. FATTENING OR FINISHING DIETS
311. LAYER DIETS
312. BALANCED DIETS
313. LACTATION DIETS
314. MALNUTRITION
315. DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOM CORRECTION
316. RANGE MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT
317. LIVESTOCK DISEASES
318. VIRAL DISEASES
319. RINDER PESTS
320. NEWCASTLE DISEASE
321. BACTERIA DISEASES
322. ANTHRAX
323. BRUCELLOSIS
324. TUBERCULOSIS
325. FUNGAL DISEASES
326. ASPERGILOSIS
327. RING WORM
328. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
329. TRYPONOSOMIASIS
330. COCCIDIOSIS
331. RED WATER FEVER(PIROPLASMOSIS)
332. ENDO PARASITES
333. TAPE WORM
334. ROUND WORM OF PIGS
335. LIVER FLUKE
336. ECTO PARASITES
337. TICK
338. LICE
339. MITES
340. FISH FARMING
341. IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING
342. ESTABLISHMENT OF FISH PONDS
343. HARVESTING AND PROCESSING OF FISH
344. ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
345. PROCESSES OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT
346. GENETIC INTRODUCTION(MIGRATION)
347. SYSTEMS OF BREEDING
348. INBREEDING






349. OUT-BREEDING
350. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
351.








AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND UNDERSTANDING BASIC AGRICULTURE AND FARMING FOR SCHOOLS Edit
Description Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agricultural science Edit
STUDY QUESTIONS
1. What is soil fertility? How is it different from a fertile soil?
2. (a) List five ways through which the fertility of the soil can be maintained.
(b) Mention two advantages and two disadvantages of using each way mentioned.
3. Name three types of organic manures.
4. How would you prepare a suitable organic manure for use in your school farm':'
5. List three advantages and two disadvantages of each type of organic manure.
6. List two types of inorganic fertilizer you have studied. Mention three advantages and disadvantages of their uses in crop production
7. Enumerate five methods of fertilizers application.
8. Write short notes on the following:
(b) mixed or compound fertilizers
(c) straight or simple fertilizers
(d) green manure
(e) cover cropping

9. (a) What is rotation cropping?
(b) State the advantages and disadvantages of rotation cropping.

10. (a) What is farm yard manure?
(b) Mention the disadvantages and advantages of the use of farm yard manure in crop
production.

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