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TYPES AND AREAS OF AGRICULTURE



TYPES AND AREAS OF AGRICULTURE



1. Explain the term subsistence and commercial Agriculture 2. List and differentiate the various areas of specialization in agriculture 2:1 Types of agriculture

All over the world, there are basically two types of agriculture. These are (a) subsistence Agriculture This is the type of agriculture where the farmer produces food just enough for his family consumption. In time of good harvest the surplus is sold for extra cash. The basic idea and aim of a subsistence farmer is to be able to feed his family.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

1. The farms are very small.
2. It is Characterized by the use of simple farm tools such
as








hoes, cutlasses, axe and others
3. Usually mixed cropping. The planting of many different types of crops on a small piece of land
4. The farm workers are usually the farmer and his immediate family 👪
5.most of the farmers are usually very poor.
6. They generally don't. The access to fertilizers.
7. The animals are usually kept for the family 👪 consumption


(B)

COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

This type of agriculture is where the farmer produces crops for the sole purpose of making money 💵

CHARACTERISTICS

1. With this of agriculture, the large areas of lands is usually required
2.mordern farm machines and equipment are commonly used.
3.it requires large sum of money to start.
Usually involves large organizations. Examples of such companies in Nigeria are 1.Temperance farms. Otta Ogun state, John Holt Farms limited in Edo state, Leventis farms limited Agenebode in Edo State.


2.2

AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

there are many fields of discipline in Agriculture, these are 1. Soil Science :soil is the natural materials on which crops or plants grow. The branch of science which studies the Soil is known as soil science. 2.. Crop science. :this is the branch of science deals with the growing of crops 3. Fishery :this branch of. Of science deals the production of fish 🐠 4. Forestry and wildlife :this branch of. Agriculture is concerned with the growing of trees and maintenance of animals in the forests


1

Areas of Specialization in Agriculture

The following are the different areas.which one can specialize in the study of agriculture:









1.

Soil Science

This deals with the study of the soil. It has to do with knowing the nature and types or classes of the soil, how to prepare the soil for crop production and managing the soil in a way that will enhance high yield of crops. A person that studied soil science is called soil scientist.

2.

Animal Science

This is the study of farm animals. Farm animals are also called livestock. The rearing of livestock or farm animals is referred to as animal husbandry, The animal scientist is the person who studied the different kinds of farm animals, how they grow and reproduce, their food requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity.

3.

Crop Science/Agronomy

This area deals with the study of crops, it is concerned with knowing the different kinds of crops and their varieties, the of cultivating them, what they require to grow and produce This area is closely connected with soil science hence universities prefer to use the term agronomy to include soil science and crop science. The agronomist is one who is specialized in crop science.

4.

Agricultural Education

This is the study and teaching of agriculture in schools. People who teach agricultural science in schools and colleges are called Agricultural Educators or Agricultural Science Teachers. In the universities or other higher institutions, they are called Agricultural Lecturers.









5.

Agricultural Extension

This is a very important aspect of agriculture, because the development of sound agricultural practices depends on a good extension service. It is mainly concerned with passing information on improved farming techniques to farmers. The farmers' problems are also carried through extension service to research stations for solutions. The people who are trained to carry out agricultural extension service are called Agricultural Extension Officers or agents.

6.

Agricultural Economics

Agriculture is a business. .This means that it must be run in a way that profit will always come from it. Agricultural Economics is therefore concerned with the study of how agriculture can be run so that it will be a profitable business. Agricultural Economics enables the farmer to know what to produce, with what to produce, how to produce, and what to do with the farm produce and finally what is the profit. A specialist in this area of agriculture is called Agricultural Economist.
their food
reproduce, requirement, how to take proper care of the animals so that they would have good conditions favourable for high productivity.

6.

Horticulture

This deals with the science and art of growing:

(a)fruit (pomology)
(b) Vegetables (Olericulture)
(c) Ornamental plants or flowers (Floriculture).
A person that specializes in horticulture is called Horticulturist.


8.

Forestry

This is that branch of agriculture that deals with the control and management of forests and forest resources. A forest represents an area of land which is mainly covered_ with trees along with other plant species. The forestry officer is one who specializes in forest management.

9.

Fishery

The rearing of fishes and other aquatic organisms in a body of water is termed fishery. Fishery as a course/subject in agriculture studies the different kinds of fishes and other aquatic organisms, how they are reared, captured, preserved and used. Fishery matters are handled by fishery

officers, trained in fishery.

10.

Veterinary Medicine

This is the area that studies the diseases and pests -of farm animals. The veterinarian is one who helps in vaccinating farm animals against diseases and treat them when they are sick. They are often called Veterinary doctors.

11.

Agricultural Engineering

This is concerned with the study of farm machineries and their uses. It also includes the maintenance of those machines and implements used on the farm, as well as construction, use and maintenance of farm structures and buildings. A specialist in this area is called Agricultural Engineer.
Other areas include Agricultural Journalism, Agricultural Biology, General Agriculture, Agricultural Biochemistry and Nutrition, etc,


Courses in agriculture available in Nigerian Higher Institutions

'
Agriculture can be studied in any of the following levels of institution:
304
1. Schools of Agriculture and polytechnics
These offer a two-year course leading to the award of the national Diploma (N.D.) some offer a further two-year course leading to the award of Higher National Diploma (H.N.D).
2. Colleges of Education
These institutions train agricultural science teachers for a three year duration after which they are awarded the Nigeria Certificate of Education (N.C.E.).
3. Universities
Different universities have their faculties of agriculture when different courses are offered leading to the award of any of the following:
(a) B.Sc ( Agric)
(b) B. Agric~
(c) B.Ed(Agric)
To study Agriculture in higher schools in Nigeria, it is advisable to offer and have credit passes, at the senior school certificate examination, Agricultural Science, Biology, Chemistry, English and Mathematics. Other relevant subjects are Physics, Economics and Geography.
Graduates from the different schools and different courses may become any of the following:
(1) Agricultural Officers in Ministries of Agriculture.
(2) Research Officers in Research Stations.
(3) Teachers in secondary schools.
(4) Teachers/Lecturers in -higher institutions.
(5) Managers in commercial farms.
(6) Agricultural loans officers in Banks ,
(7) Veterinary doctors.
(8) Public Relations Officers in large Agro-industries or farms.
(9) Agricultural journalists
(10) Agricultural businessmen f
(11) Forestry officers. .
(12) Fishery officers.

It has been mentioned earlier in this unit that

agriculture is both academic and vocational.

What has been discussed above is the academic and vocational aspect of agriculture.
On the vocational side, a person who studied agriculture' can engage in any of the following vocations or occupations:
a) Arable crops production: This is concerned with the cultivation of food crops such as cereals, tubers, plantains* and banana, etc.
(b)Cash crops production: This includes the cultivation of crops such as cotton, oil palm, rubber, cocoa, etc.
(c) Vegetables production
(d) Production of ornamental plants and landscape development and beautification.
(e) Livestock production: This includes the rearing of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits or poultry. . (g) Fishery.,
(h) Agricultural business (trading on farm produce and farm equipment or inputs)


Advantages of choosing farming as a career

Many people often think that agriculture means farming. T his is not entirely true. As it has been seen in the preceding discussions, agriculture is academic, it is a business and it is a vocation or an occupation. Farming comes under vocation or occupation in agriculture.
Agriculture is mainly concerned with the cultivation of crops and the rearing of animals on the farm. Farming therefore is an important component or sub-sector of agriculture because it is the source of food for mankind. AH other aspects of agriculture are geared towards improving farming and hence increasing available food for human consumption. Therefore, agriculture cam toe regarded as the mother of all professions, occupations or businesses.
If agriculture flourishes, every other aspect of human endeavour will flourish, but if the land is allowed to lie fallow, every other thing is at a standstill.

HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
11. AGRICULTURAL REGULATIONS
12. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
13. RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN AGRICULTURE
14. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
15. AGRICULTURAL CREDITS
16. AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES
17. QUARANTINE SERVICES
18. VACCINES IN AGRICULTURE
19. FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
20. PROBLEMS OF FARM SETTLEMENT SCHEME
21. OPERATION FEED THE NATION



34. FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER


73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL

112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS






126. CROP ROTATION
127. GRAZING AND OVER GRAZING
128. IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
129. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
130. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
131. SURFACE METHODS
132. UNDER GROUND SYSTEMS
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
136. ANIMAL SOURCE
137. MECHANICAL SOURCE
138. WIND POWER SOURCE
139. SOLAR POWER SOURCE
140. ELECTRICITY POWER SOURCE
141. FARM MACHINERY

142. FIELD MACHINES
143. TRAILED IMPLEMENTS
144. MOUNTED IMPLEMENTS
145. SEMI MOUNTED IMPLEMENT
146. SELF-PROPELLED IMPLEMENT
147. TRACTORS
148. THE BULLDOZER

149. PLOUGHS
150. THE MOULDBOARD PLOUGHS
151. THE SHARES
152. THE MOULDBOARD
153. THE LANDSLIDE
154. DISC PLOUGH
155. HARROW
156. RIDGERS

157. PLANTERS
158. PRAYERS
159. HARVESTERS
160. HAY HARVESTER EQUIPMENT
161. GRAIN HARVESTING EQUIPMENT
162. INCUBATORS
163. MILKING MACHINE

164. SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION