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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one stomach 1. Po...

TYPES OF ENZYMES



TYPES OF ENZYMES

What is an enzyme?

An enzyme is an organic catalyst, usually proteinous in nature, which promotes or speeds up chemical changes in living cells but are not used up themselves in the process of the chemical changes or reaction.
Enzymes accelerate metabolic reactions without changing their composition in the process.
There are six key types of enzymes in organic chemistry. They are organized according to the way they work on a molecular level.

But first, what is an enzyme? An enzyme is a substance – usually a protein – created by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about life-sustaining biochemical reactions. Different types of enzymes have different classifications based on the kind of reactions they catalyze. Every organism – from the one-celled bacterium to the trillion-celled elephant – has many enzymes at work.












TYPES ENZYMES

There are two major types of enzymes. These are
i. Intracellular enzymes: these types of enzymes usually functions inside the cells of living organisms. Common examples of these type of enzymes are the enzymes that catalyze cell respiration inside the mitochondria.
ii. Extracellular enzymes: these types of enzymes are enzymes which carry out their functions outside the cells. Examples of extracellular enzymes are the digestive enzymes












CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYME

S
The new method of classifying enzymes is based on the nature of the chemical changes it facilitates on a substrate. Such changes may involve oxidation in which case the enzyme will be called an oxidase.
It should be noted that the earlier classification based on the substrate on which the enzyme works on like the amylase for maltose, protease for protein or lipases for lipids are no longer correct or biochemically acceptable. So enzymes are classified as summarized below this article, so scroll down to read it.
So from this deduction, it is clear that all digestive enzymes belong to the class called hydrolases.
These class of enzymes called hydrolases generally refers to enzymes that break up various bonds, which is breaking large molecules into smaller particles in the presence of water.


CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYMES

The following are the various ways to recognize an enzyme
They are
1. Enzymes remain chemically unchanged after a chemical reaction
2. Enzymes are specific in action. So one or more group of enzymes will act on specific substrates.
3. They are required in small quantities
4. Enzymes act best over a specific range of temperature, between 350-400C.
5. Enzymes are denature. Which is to say they are destroyed at high temperature and inactivated at very low temperature.
6. Enzymes act best at specific PH level. Either alkaline or acidic
7. The action of an enzyme is reversible
8. The action of an enzyme can be retarded by poison or inhibitors
9. Some enzyme are inactive and so require a co-enzyme to activate them
10. Enzymes can function outside the body of the organism that produced them
11. Enzymes are proteinous in nature


HERE ARE THE CLASSES OF ENZYME EXPLAINED








CLASS OF ENZYMES

1. HYDROLASES
Catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage or breaking up of carbon-oxygen, carbon-nitrogen or carbon bonds
2. OXIDO-REDUCTASES
Enzymes catalyzes the joining together of two molecules with accompanying hydrolysis of a higher energy bond.
3. TRANSFERASES:
This type of enzyme catalyzes a reaction of the general form: A+B+CIA+C+B
4. ISOMERASES:
This class of enzymes work on isomers and usually change the spatial configuration of molecule in a living cell
5. LIGASES:
This class of enzyme catalyzes the joining together of two molecules with the accompanying hydrolysis of a high energy bond
6. LYASES:
This class of enzyme catalyzes the breaking up of bonds by elimination or addition reaction


FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE ENZYMES

Enzymes performs the following function within the body. They are
1. Enzymes helps in breaking down proteins in food into amino acid
2. The help to break down fats and oil into fatty acids and glycerol
3. Enzymes helps to break down carbohydrates into glucose, fructose and galactose






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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL





79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL CLAY SOIL
LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112. THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES FARM YARD MANURE
APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING CLEARING
121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING FARM YARD MANURE
124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION