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Showing posts with label farmstead. Show all posts
Showing posts with label farmstead. Show all posts

TYPES OF FARM STRUCTURE AND MAINTAINANCE


Farm structures

Apart from concrete buildings, there are several other struc-tures on the farm. These structures could he of temporary or per¬manent nature. depending on their uses.

The following are the structures commonly found on the farm:


(a)

Storage structure:

These are used for storing farm produce or different kinds.

They include:

(i)

Yam barn for storing yam tubers:

The yam barn is constructed by fitting vertical poles into the ground. Horizontal poles are tied to the vertical poles are fitted to the horizontal poles to which the yam tubers are tied singly in a horizontal position.
(ii)

Silos:

These are tower-like structures usually built of aluminium and are used for storing dried grains like maize and sorghum (guinea corn).



(iii)

Cribs:

These are structures used for storing unshelled maize on the farm.

Processing structures:

These are structures used for the processing of different kinds of produce on the farm. They include cassava mill, rice mill, abattoir (for slaughtering animals) milk pasteurizing shed (for sterilising fresh milk) fish/meal smoking or drying shed.

Fence:

This is a structure constructed round the farm. Fence could be any of the following types:
1. Barbed wire fence
2. Hedge or live fence
3. Post and rail fence
4. Wire netting fence
5. Wall fence
6. Electric fence.

Fence serves several purposes on the farm. These include:

1. To protect the crops and animals.
2. To demarcate boundaries.
3. To prevent thieves from gaining easy access to the farm.
4. To improve the grazing habit of animals such as in rotational grazing.
5. To control animal breeding habit.
6. To reduce the spread of pests and disease organisms
7. To add beauty to the farm.



(b)

Gates and porter’s lodge:

these are attached to the fence at the entrance into the farm. The gate is controlled by the mate-man who stays in the porter's lodge. It is used to control movement In ti out of the farm.


Gates are also found in animal pens and fenced paddocks. They are used to control the movement of the animals.
(c)

Other Structures include:

Roads, electricity generating plant. Bore- holes and dam for supplying water to the farm, spray races .mil dips for removing ecto or external parasites from animals crushes for restricting animal movement, manure pits and water tanks.

A11 these are collectively referred to as utility structures.

Maintenance of farm buildings and structures

Buildings and structures on the farm require adequate maintenance if they are to last for a long time and perform the functions they are meant for. Therefore, it is necessary
1.

Concreting




The floors of buildings should be made of concrete to avoid cracking and wearing away. Concreted floors do not provide hideouts for rodents and other pests of farm produce.
2.

Painting, Oiling or Greasing

The wooden parts of buildings and structures should be painted with anti-insects chemicals such as solignum to prevent them from being damaged
by termites and other insects.
Also, metal parts should be painted with anti-rust paint especially tanks and other materials used in storing water. Other metal materials that arc likely to become rusty after sometime should be painted with oil paint, oiled, or greased.
3.

Seasoning

Wooden materials used in building and construction of farm structures should be seasoned, that is properly dried before beinu used. This will help to protect the wood from insect damage and the possibility of the structure becoming slacked after some¬time.

4.

Regular inspection and repairs

All farm structures should be checked frequently and age should be repaired without delay. The damaged parts of any building or structure should be-replaced new ones. Openings on the walls of building. should Be covered to prevent rodents from in them.

5.

Cleaning

It is important to keep buildings and structures clean as this helps to prolong their lifespan. Water tanks should be cleaned always, abattoirs, milking sheds, processing structures and others need cleaning. Storage structures should be cleaned after the odd consignment has been removed before bringing in new ones.
6.

Roofing

The tops of farm buildings, should be properly roofed to make them rat proof. Asbestos, iron, or aluminium sheets should be used instead of thatched roofs. This helps to protect the buildings against too much sun, rainstorm, and rats.

7.

Bracing of Walls

Wall and heavy roofs should be supported by pillars to make them strong and prevent them from collapsing.





1. List fives types of farm buildings an five types of farm structures.give the uses of each of them.
2. State and explain five ways by which farm buildings and structures es can be maintained.
3. Enumerate five factors to consider in farmstead construction.
4. List four utility structures that are useful in a farm set up.


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HERE YOU WILL FIND EVERY AVAILABLE TOPICS ABOUT AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. AND THE LINKS TO THEIR VARIOUS SOURCES.
1. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE
2. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
3. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE
4. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
5. PROBLEM OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
6. SOLUTIONS TO POOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
7. AGRICULTURAL LAWS AND REFORMS
8. ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
9. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES
10. PROGRAM PLANNING IN AGRICULTURE
34.
FORESTRY
35. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
36. FACTORS AFFECTING LAND AVAILABILITY
37. TOPOGRAPHY
38. SOIL
39. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
40. SOCIAL-ECONOMIC FACTORS
41. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
42. CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
43. TEMPERATURE
44. RAINFALL
45. WIND
46. SUNLIGHT
47. SOLAR RADIATION
48. BIOTIC FACTOR AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
49. PESTS
50. BIRDS
51. DISEASES
52. SOIL MICRO-ORGANISMS
53. SOIL PH
54. ROCK FORMATION
55. IGNEOUS ROCK
56. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
57. METAMORPHIC
58. SOIL AND ITS FORMATION
59. FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION
60. LIVING ORGANISM
61. PARENT MATERIALS
62. SOIL FORMATION TOPOGRAPHY
63. PROCESS OF SOIL FORMATION
64. WEATHERING
65. PHYSICAL WEATHERING
66. CHEMICAL WEATHERING
67. PRESSURE
68. WATER
73. BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING
74. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL
75. SOIL WATER
76. MICRO AND MACRO NUTRIENTS
77. SOIL MICRO ORGANISM
78. PROPERTIES OF SOIL
79. SOIL STRUCTURE
80. SANDY SOIL
81. CLAY SOIL
82. LOAMY SOIL

83. SOIL TEXTURE
84. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL TYPES THROUGH EXPERIMENTS
85. RETENTION OF WATER BY VARIOUS SOIL TYPES
86. DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH REACTION
87. COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF SOIL PH LEVEL
88. PH SOIL TEST
89. PLANT NUTRIENTS
90.
MACRO NUTRIENTS IN GENERAL
112.
THE MAINTENANCE OF SOIL FERTILITY
113. CROP ROTATION
114. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC MANURES
115. FARM YARD MANURE
116. APPLICATION OF INORGANIC MANURE

117. LIMING
118. FARMING PRACTICES
119. BUSH BURNING
120. CLEARING

121. FERTILIZER APPLICATION
122. ORGANIC MANURING
123. FARM YARD MANURE

124. HUMUS
125. COMPOST
126. CROP ROTATION
133. FARM POWER AND MACHINERY
134. SOURCES OF FARM POWER
135. HUMAN SOURCE
149.
PLOUGHS
142.
FIELD MACHINES
157.
PLANTERS
164.
SIMPLE FARM TOOLS
165. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION
166. THE CONCEPT OF MECHANIZATION

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